ஜகாத் ஆங்கிலம்

 بِسۡمِ ٱللهِ ٱلرَّحۡمَـٰنِ ٱلرَّحِيمِ

 

ZAKAAH

In the light of Qur’an and Sunnah


Author: Maulavi: P. Zainul Abidheen Ulavi (PJ)


Translated By: Brother: A. Mohammed Ghani

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 Preface of the Publisher

The issue of whether to pay Zakaah for the goods (or wealth) for which Zakaah has previously been paid is going on for several years.

Thowheed Jamaath affirms that Zakaah is not due on goods (or wealth) for which Zakaah has previously been paid. But, due to lack of presenting written evidence in front of people, it paved way for some to preach (?) this in wrong sense.

Some criticize that we totally neglect paying Zakaah. And some others preach that we insist people to pay Zakaah only once during their lifetime.

Hence, what is the stand on paying Zakaah for goods for which Zakaah has previously been paid? And what is the stand of Thowheed Jamaath?

Since a long time, people requested us to present in written form, our stand on the evidences and arguments of people who insist in paying Zakaah for goods (or wealth) for which Zakaah has previously been paid.

We publish this book as a means of satisfying their request.

This book is not intended to explain the obligation - Zakaah entirely. Rather, it only focuses in detail, a single issue: “Should Zakaah be paid for goods (or wealth) for which Zakaah has previously been paid?”

We request the readers not to be biased and be impartial to understand the truth.

We also extend our sincere thanks to P. Zainul Abidheen (a. PJ), S.S.U. Saifullah Haja, M.S. Sulaiman, S. Kaleel Rasool, P. Anwer Basha, P.M. Muhammad Ali Rahmani,      S.A. Basheer Ahamed Umari, Yousuf Faizi, S. Rahmathullah, Fakir Muhammad Althafi, A. Syed Ibrahim, M.M. Saifullah and S.M. Abbas.

Nabeela Publication

  Preface of English Translator

Since English is a universal language, understood by majority of the population, I decided to translate Thowheed articles (originally published by Thowheed Jamaath in Tamil), Alhamdhulillah! Insha Allah, this would also serve as a shield against the fake criticism of people in contrary belief.

The main intention behind such effort is to spread the message of Islam in its purest form, Insha Allah.

Most importantly the concept of following only Quran and Hadhees itself is corrupted by people insisting to follow Salafs (Predecessors). And such corruption is extremely dangerous.

As per strong Islamic belief, Wahi or the Divine Guidance from Allah Subahana thala itself is self sufficient and complete. Hence, selecting such third way is clear Bid’ah and would mean as if Allah’s divine guidance has flaws. This is as a result of comparing Word of Allah to Human words. As a Muslim, we are bound not to compare Allah’s word with that of Human words. Of course, only Allah knows the best!

(A. Mohammed Ghani)

 

Index

1.0 Introduction

Should Zakaah be paid for Wealth on which Zakaah has previously been paid?....................06

 

1.1 Zakaah is only intended for purifying Wealth…………………………………………………………            11

1.1.1 What is the Apprehension involved?..............................................................................           13

1.1.2 Impurity of People or Wealth?..................................................................................... 14

1.1.3 Will it purify People?...................................................................................................  14

1.1.4 Why is Zakaah Obligatory for Inherited Assert?......................................................    15

 

2.0 Unacceptable Evidences………………………………………………………………………   16

2.1 Orphans’ Wealth………………………………………………………………………   17

2.1.1 Misconception………………………………………………………………………    17

2.1.2 Grade of the Narrations……………………………………………………………..   17

2.1.2.1 Narration-1………………………………………………………………………..    17

2.1.2.1.1 Scandals pertaining to Al-Muthannaa Ibn as-Sabaah…………………………..    18

2.1.2.2 Narration-2………………………………………………………………………..    19

2.1.2.2.1 Scandals pertaining to Mindhal………………………………………………....   19

2.1.2.2.2 Scandals pertaining to ‘Ubayd Ibn Is’haaq……………………………………..   19

2.1.2.3 Narration-3………………………………………………………………………..    20

2.1.2.4 Narration-4………………………………………………………………………..    21

2.1.3 Hadhees doesn’t imply “Yearly” …………………………………………………..    22

2.1.4 Injustice to Orphan…………………………………………………………………    22

2.2 Narration citing Zakaah paid in advance……………………………………………..    23

2.2.1 Grade of the Narrations……………………………………………………………..   24

2.2.1.1 Narration-1………………………………………………………………………..    24

2.2.1.2 Narration-2………………………………………………………………………..    25

2.2.1.3 Narration-3………………………………………………………………………...   25

2.2.1.4 Narration-4………………………………………………………………………...   25

2.2.1.5 Narration-5………………………………………………………………………...   26

2.2.1.6 Narration-6………………………………………………………………………...   26

2.2.1.7 Narration-7………………………………………………………………………...   27

2.2.2 Contrary to the Authentic Narration………………………………………………...  28

2.2.3 Can Zakaah be collected in advance? ……………………………………………...   29

2.3 Zakaah not obliged until a year passes on it…………………………………………..   30

            2.3.1 Every Year……………………………………………………………………………...          32

            2.3.1.1 Narration of Al-Bayhaqee……………………………………………………………          32

            2.3.1.2 Narration of Thabarani……………………………………………………………….           33

            2.3.1.3 Narration of Abu Dawud……………………………………………………………..         34

2.3.1.4 Narration of Abu Dawud also has two deficiencies……………………………….  34

2.4 Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with Him)’s Rule…………………………………...   35

2.5 Zakaah for Cattle………………………………………………………………………  37

 

3.0 COMPANIONS- Should one follow their Guidance? …………………………………………           38

3.1 Hajj-at-Tamattu'…………………………………………………………………………            41

3.2 Bathing (Ghusl)…………………………………………………………………………            42

3.3 Rubbing hands and feet with dust   (Tayammum) ……………………………………..            43

3.4 Plague…………………………………………………………………………………...            43

            3.5 Asking Permission…………………………………………………………………………        44

            3.6 Death of Apostle of Allah………………………………………………………………….       44

            3.7 Three Divorces - Muttalaq…………………………………………………………………        45

 1.0 Introduction

Should Zakaah be paid for Wealth on which Zakaah has previously been paid?

Majority of the Islamic Scholars proclaim that Zakaah is required annually on all accumulated wealth above the nisaab on which a year has passed.

For instance, if a Muslim has a wealth of about Rs. 100,000, he is obliged to pay 2.5% of it as Zakaah. In the Consecutive year, 2.5% of the remaining 97500 is directed. This is the practice of Majority of the Scholars.

In this affair, we differ.

If one owns Rs. 100, 000; Rs.25, 00 of this should be paid as Zakaah. After this, Zakaah is not obligatory on this wealth (for which Zakaah is previously paid). Zakaah should be paid only for the excess amount obtained apart from this sum of money.

For example, if one acquires another sum of Rs. 100,000 (apart wealth on which Zakaah has previously been paid), it is sufficient if Zakaah is paid on the additional sum acquired, for which it is obligatory. Our decision is that Zakaah is not required for wealth on which Zakaah has previously been paid.

Similarly only 2.5 Souverign (2.5%) of the Zakaah is obligatory for 100 Souverign of Gold. An additional acquirement of 50 Souverign would mandate Zakaah of 1.25 Souverign (2.5% of 50 Souverign and not of 147.5 Souverign). Zakaah is not applicable for 97.5 Souverign for which Zakaah is already been paid.

Awaiting the completion of one year to mandate Zakaah is not required. 2.5% Zakaah is obligatory on the leftover wealth (excluding monthly expenses), if one obtains Rs. 100,000 every month.

Zakaah becomes obligatory on possession of minimum 11 Souverigns of Gold or its equivalent; the threshold for Zakaah becoming mandatory.

(Few Scholars emphasize that 624 Grams of Silver or its equivalent is the threshold for Zakaah becoming obligatory. We are in the process of analyzing this.)

Similarly, if one earns daily, he should give Zakaah on the leftovers of the day. If one’s income is monthly, it should be done at the end of the month and similarly for yearly income.

What is the motive of this Decision?

There are few Hadhees stating Zakaah be paid for wealth on which Zakaah has previously been paid. There are also few Hadhees indicating Zakaah every year for which Zakaah has previously been paid.  

It would be a fair decision, if these Narrations are Authentic. But, all these Narrations are Un-Authenticated. They are either fabricated or are Da’eef.

The detail discussion includes these Narrations and defines the aspect in which they are Da’eef. There are evidences for:

Ø      The state in which Zakaah is Obligatory.

Ø      How much to be given out.

Ø      Whom all it should be given.

But, there are no acceptable proofs for paying Zakaah for goods for which Zakaah is previously paid. When there is no acceptable Evidence, how do we interpret the Obligation of Zakaah?

In General, if some Duties are ordained without time-bound, it refers to do once.

Everything from Spiritual Worship to Worldly Trade is interpreted in similar manner, which is the right way of interpreting too. In case of Salah, there is direct command to pray 5 times daily. Hence we understand that performing Salah, 5 times a day, day after day is obligatory.

If in Quran or Sunnah, it is only commanded “to perform Salah” and when there are no indications on the frequency, it would not be interpreted as 5 times a day; neither would it be interpreted as once in month nor year. At the same time if this kind of interpretation is made, would give rise to questions something like “based on which proof was this inferred?”

In case of Fasting (Sawm), there are obvious commands to fast throughout the month of Ramadhan. Ramadhan being the name of a specific month and which iterates again and again year after year; simplifies our decision making that fasting is to be performed every year, year after year.

But in case if in Quran and Sunnah it is commanded only “to fast” without specifying day or month, how will this be inferred?

It will be inferred as only “Once in lifetime”. There would be no contrary questions for this inference.

Unlike this, if it is concluded to fast Weekly or Monthly or one month in a year, or one week in a year, obvious questions on the “time limit” set would arise; which would leave us unvoiced.

Hajj can be considered as a relevant example:

The Book of Pilgrimage (Kitab Al-Hajj)

Muslim:: Book 7 : Hadith 3095

Abu Huraira (Allah be pleased with him) reported: Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) addressed us and said: O people, Allah has made Hajj obligatory for you; so perform Hajj. Thereupon a person said: Messenger of Allah, (is it to be performed) every year? He (the Holy Prophet) kept quiet, and he repeated (these words) thrice, whereupon Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him) said: If I were to say" Yes," it would become obligatory (for you to perform it every year) and you would not be able to do it. Then he said: Leave me with what I have left to you, for those who were before you were destroyed because of excessive questioning, and their opposition to their apostles. So when I command you to do anything, do it as much as it lies in your power and when I forbid you to do anything, then abandon it.

When, Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) specified the obligation of Hajj, a Companion questioned him “is it every year?” thereupon Allah’s Apostle, expressed Anger: explained that once in lifetime.

The Companion questioned this because Hajj month iterates year after year, and people gather every year. Even then, Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) clarified that it should not be inferred like that.

We understand that if something is commanded without setting Time Limit, it should be performed only once.

Suppose A is commanded to “give Rs. 1000 to B”. Both of them, A and B would understand “to give it only once”

With respect to the command cited above, if B asks A for Rs.1000 every year, will A give? Definitely he won’t.

Command on Zakaah is also on the same ground.

People in contrary principle frequently questions us to show “Proof for giving Zakaah only once”.

If the meaning of a word is evident, is it intellectual to ask for evidence? They hesitate to understand this.

Assume that A tells B that I will give you Rs. 1000 and as per that A gives Rs 1000 as well. B comes back again next year and asks A Rs 1000, thereupon A say that I have given. What would A consider B if he questions something like “you never refuted giving every year and what is the evidence?”

A would question back “Didn’t you understand the Generic statement and not specifying ‘every year’ is the proof?”

Commanding Zakaah on Wealth is a Generic Statement: should it be given:

Ø                 Every second?

Ø                 Every minute?

Ø                 Every hour?

Ø                 Every day?

Ø                 Every week?

Ø                 Every month?

Ø                 Once in two months?

Ø                 Once in three months?

Ø                 Once in six months?

Ø                 Every year?

Ø                 Once in 5 years?

This gives rise to Thousands of meanings/interpretations. Whoever concludes it as “Every year” from these Thousands of interpretations should present proofs in support of this claim.

Quoting without setting any Time limit itself is sufficient evidence for us.

Another illustration can be cited to prove that when time limit is not set, it refers to “only once”.

Distribution of Water

Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 40 :: Hadith 545

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) said, "No bloodmoney will be charged if somebody dies in a mine or in a well or is killed by an animal; and if somebody finds a treasure in his land he has to give one-fifth of it to the Government."

Will it be interpreted as Person, hunted treasure should pay 20% year after year? or once?

Virtues and Merits of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Companions

Bukhari :: Book 4 :: Volume 56 :: Hadith 713

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The delegates of 'Abd-ul-Qais came to Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) and said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are from the tribe of Rabi'a and the infidels of Mudar tribe stand between us and you, so that we cannot come to you except in the Sacred Months. Therefore we would like you to give us some instructions which we may follow and convey to our people staying behind us." The Prophet said, "I order you to observe four things and forbid you (to do) four things: (I order you) to believe in Allah testifying that None has the right to be worshipped except Allah; to offer the prayer perfectly; to pay the Zakaah; and to give one-fifth of the war booty to Allah. And I forbid you to use Ad-Dubba, Al-Hantam, An-Naqir and Al-Muzaffat." (These are names of utensils in which alcoholic drinks were served.)

Good Manners and Form (Al-Adab)

Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 73 :: Hadith 195

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

When the delegation of 'Abdul Qais came to the Prophet, he said, "Welcome, O the delegation who have come! Neither will you have disgrace, nor will you regret." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! We are a group from the tribe of Ar-Rabi'a, and between you and us there is the tribe of Mudar and we cannot come to you except in the sacred months. So please order us to do something good (religious deeds) so that we may enter Paradise by doing that, and also that we may order our people who are behind us (whom we have left behind at home) to follow it." He said, "Four and four:" offer prayers perfectly, pay the Zakaah, (obligatory charity), fast the month of Ramadan, and give one-fifth of the war booty (in Allah's cause), and do not drink in (containers called) Ad-Duba,' Al-Hantam, An-Naqir and Al-Muzaffat."

 Accepting Information Given by a Truthful Person

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 91 :: Hadith 371

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

When the delegate of 'Abd Al-Qais came to Allah's Apostle, he said, "Who are the delegate?" They said, "The delegate are from the tribe of Rabi'a." The Prophet said, "Welcome, O the delegate, and welcome! O people! Neither you will have any disgrace nor will you regret." They said, "O Allah's Apostle! Between you and us there are the infidels of the tribe of Mudar, so please order us to do something good (religious deeds) that by acting on them we may enter Paradise, and that we may inform (our people) whom we have left behind, about it." They also asked (the Prophet) about drinks. He forbade them from four things and ordered them to do four things. He ordered them to believe in Allah, and asked them, "Do you know what is meant by belief in Allah?" They said, "Allah and His Apostle know best." He said, ''To testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, the One, Who has no partners with Him, and that Muhammad is Allah's Apostle; and to offer prayers perfectly and to pay Zakaah." (the narrator thinks that fasting in Ramadan is included), "and to give one-fifth of the war booty (to the state)." Then he forbade four (drinking utensils): Ad-Duba', Al-Hantam, Al-Mazaffat and An-Naqir, or probably, Al-Muqaiyar. And then the Prophet said, "Remember all these things by heart and preach it to those whom you have left behind."

Oneness, Uniqueness of Allah (Tawheed)

Bukhari:: Book 9:: Volume 93 :: Hadith 645

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

The delegates of 'Abdul Qais came to Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) and said, "The pagans of the tribe of Mudar intervene between you and us therefore we cannot come to you except in the Holy months. So please order us to do something good (Religious deeds) by which we may enter Paradise (by acting on them) and we may inform our people whom we have left behind to observe it." The Prophet said, "I order you to do four things and forbid you from four things: I order you to believe in Allah. Do you know what is meant by belief in Allah? It is to testify that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, to offer prayers perfectly, to give Zakaah, and to give Al-Khumus (one-fifth of the war booty) (in Allah's Cause). And I forbid you four things, (i.e., Do not drink alcoholic drinks) Ad-Dubba, An-Naqir, (pitched water skins), Az-Zuruf, Al-Muzaffat and Al--Hantam (names of utensils used for the preparation of alcoholic drinks)." (See Hadith No. 50, Vol. 1)

Does this imply to give 20% of war booty year after year? Or 20% of booty acquired while facing another war?

Hence, if one fails to prove that Paying Zakaah is obligatory year after year, it would by default be proved that Zakaah is obligatory only once on a Wealth.

This is the important proof we place front.

To strengthen this claim, we also provide some supporting information.

People in contrary belief; deviate from the topic by not answering our fundamental claims and by answering (?)Few questions raised in our supporting information.

Even for an instance, if it is assumed (?) that they prove our supporting information wrong, they still cannot establish their decision unless they answer our primary claims.

Hence, they should answer the supporting evidences, and most importantly, should undoubtedly prove Zakaah is obligatory on Goods for which Zakaah has previously been paid.


1.1 Zakaah is only intended for purifying Wealth

In Islam, the intention of Paying Zakaah is clearly specified. This intention further strengthens our claim.

حدثنا عثمان بن أبي شيبة حدثنا يحيى بن يعلى المحاربي حدثنا أبي حدثنا غيلان عن جعفر بن إياس  أبو وحشية عن مجاهد عن ابن عباس قال لما نزلت هذه الآية والذين يكنزون الذهب والفضة قال كبر ذلك على المسلمين فقال عمر رضي الله عنه أنا أفرج عنكم فانطلق فقال يا نبي الله إنه كبر على أصحابك هذه الآية فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم إن الله لم يفرض الزكاة إلا ليطيب ما بقي من أموالكم وإنما فرض المواريث لتكون لمن بعدكم فكبر عمر ثم قال له ألا أخبرك بخير ما يكنز المرء المرأة الصالحة إذا نظر إليها سرته وإذا أمرها أطاعته وإذا غاب عنها حفظته

Zakaah (Kitab Al-Zakaah)

Dawud:: Book 9: Hadith 1660

Narrated Abdullah Ibn Abbas:

When this verse was revealed: "And those who hoard gold and silver," the Muslims were grieved about it. Umar said: I shall dispel your care. He, therefore, went and said: Prophet of Allah, your Companions were grieved by this verse. The Apostle of Allah (Peace Be Upon Him) said: Allah has made Zakaah obligatory simply to purify your remaining property, and He made inheritances obligatory that they might come to those who survive you. Umar then said: Allah is most great. He then said to him: Let me inform you about the best a man hoards; it is a virtuous woman who pleases him when he looks at her, obeys him when he gives her a command, and guards his interests when he is away from her.

This observation of Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) that Zakaah is not obligatory but for purifying the excess wealth therefore remain; as a strong proof in support of our decision.

People in contrary principle published a book that none of the Authentic Narrations remain in support of “Zakaah intended only for Purifying wealth”

But, the above cited Narration falsifies their claim.

If the intention of Zakaah is only to purify wealth, it becomes obvious that there is no need to pay Zakaah for the wealth for which Zakaah has been previously paid.

After finding this Hadhees in support of our decision, people in contrary principle tries to reject this by claiming that the narrator chain of this Hadhees is broken.

The Narrator chain is as follows:

1. Author Abu Dawud.

2. Utman bin Abeeshiba.

3. Yahya.

4. Yaqla.

5. Kylon.

6. Jaffer bin Iyas.

7. Mujahid.

8. Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them).

9.  Umar (May Allah be pleased with them).

10. Allah’s Apostle.

In this row, the Narrators report from the predecessors.

It is said in this list that Kylon (5) reports from Jaffer bin Iyas (6). They claim that since both of them have never met, this is “Munkadhi” and should be rejected.

For such claim, they should point out the reason. Instead, they show Imam Albani’s claim as evidence.

When denial with no reason of Great Scholars, well versed in Science of Hadhees like Ibnu Hajar, Thahabi, Ibnu Mayeen, Yahya bin Syed are not accepted, they claim this Narration as Broken with the misconception that research work of Nasirudheen Albani, who belongs to our Era, is free from error.

It is been observed that people follow blindly when Nasirudheen Albani’s say is positive on a particular matter. But, there are proofs that Albani have told an Authentic Narration Da’eef, Da’eef Narration Authentic, and which is not present in Narration as being present. Though Albani is an Excellent Scholar, being a Human, he is also prone to errors. It is to be noted that there is no Scholar of Hadhees Science exclusive of these deficiencies.

The claim of Albani that this Hadhees is broken is based on this:

Ø      Jaffer Bin Iyas.

Ø      Utman bin Kathan.

Ø      Kylon.

This Hadhees is documented in Hakim with this Narrator chain.

In this Narration, Uthman exists between Jaffer and Kylon. Since he is missing in the narration documented in Abu Dawud, Albani says that this Hadhees is Broken.

But, since Uthman bin Katthan existing in Narration of Hakim is Feeble, this Hadhees cannot be accepted.

It is meaningless research to decide upon the existence of a person in a Da’eef  narration would falsify an Authentic Narration if he is left out in the narrator’s chain of an authentic narration.

Actually, when asked if Kylon could have met Jaffer, the answer would be “possible” because Kylon’s demise took place in Hijri 132 and that of Jaffer bin Iyas is Hijri 126.

غيلان بن جامع  بن أشعث المحاربي أبو عبد الله الكوفي قاضيها ثقة من السادسة مات سنة اثنتين وثلاثين م د س ق    (تقريب التهذيب ج: 1 ص: 443)

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 1/443

جعفر بن إياس  أبو بشر بن أبي وحشية بفتح الواو وسكون المهملة وكسر المعجمة وتثقيل التحتانية ... مات سنة خمس وقيل ست وعشرين ع تقريب التهذيب ج: 1 ص: 139  

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 1/139

There is only 6 year gap between their demise. This is relatively much more sufficient period for them to have met each other.

Moreover, Jaffer bin Iyas belongs to Basra and Kylon to Kufa. There is no surprise in people from adjacent cities to have met.

We all agree that the Narrations documented in Saheeh Muslim is Authenticated. Imam Muslim, in his preface quotes that when both the narrators are Reliable, and when both have existed in same Era, and when conditions prevailed for both of them to have met; it is sufficient for us to assume that one of them have perceived from the other. Imam Muslim have documented the Narrations in Saheeh Muslim based on this criterion. Scholars of Hadhees Science have also accepted this. Hence, Kylon hearing from Jaffer cannot be rejected.

Neither there is a basis nor Proof for both of them not having met. This is a wrong decision of Albani which is not accepted by anyone. They justify this stand of falsifying an Authentic Narration with a Da’eef Narration.

Some more Narrations strengthens that Zakaah is for purifying Wealth.

1.1.1 What is the Apprehension involved?

 حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ شَبِيبِ بْنِ سَعِيدٍ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ عَنْ خَالِدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ قَالَ خَرَجْنَا مَعَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا فَقَالَ أَعْرَابِيٌّ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ يَكْنِزُونَ الذَّهَبَ وَالْفِضَّةَ وَلَا يُنْفِقُونَهَا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ قَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا مَنْ كَنَزَهَا فَلَمْ يُؤَدِّ زَكَاتَهَا فَوَيْلٌ لَهُ إِنَّمَا كَانَ هَذَا قَبْلَ أَنْ تُنْزَلَ الزَّكَاةُ فَلَمَّا أُنْزِلَتْ جَعَلَهَا اللَّهُ طُهْرًا لِلْأَمْوَالِ رواه البخاري  

Bukhari Chapter: 4

Narrated Khalid Bin Aslam

We went outside with Abdullah Bin Umar (May Allah be pleased with them), then a Villager asked to clarify the verse “whoever hoards gold and silver from spending in Allah’s Cause…” Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) replied “whoever hoards them from paying Zakaah will be losers”. And that "this warning was applicable before legislation of Zakaah. When Zakaah was made a duty, Allah made it serve as purification of money." The proof that even Companions believed that the Narration of Abu Dawud where-in it states that Zakaah is to purify Wealth further strengthens the above cited Hadhees.

When we say this, some pretend not to have understood and raise a concern as to how the statements of Companions be taken as Islamic Evidence. They deviate by not understanding the difference between showing something as evidence and showing something to strengthen a claim.

We didn’t show Companions’ statements as Evidence. We quote the Allah’s Apostle’s observation Narrated in Abu Dawud as Evidence and highlight Ibn Umar’s statement as additional-supportive evidence. But, we are ignorant over the apprehension involved in People considering Companion’s guidance as third Evidence neglecting this third evidence.

1.1.2 Impurity of People or Wealth?

We are aware that Zakaah is forbidden for the Family member’s of Allah’s Apostle.

While Forbidding Zakaah for himself and his family members, Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) explained the reason behind, documented in Saheeh Muslim:

He mentioned it as “Impurities”. Some use this Hadhees to claim that Zakaah will purify only People and not Wealth. But, a deep insight would turn this against their claim.

People’s impurity doesn’t mean the residue from their body. Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) cited the phrase “People’s Impurities” because when Wealth (for which Zakaah has previously been paid) is Pure, then the expelled wealth (as Zakaah) becomes impure and hence is referring to Impurities of Human race. This further strengthens that intention of Zakaah is to purify goods.

The Book of Zakaah (Kitab Al-Zakaah)

Muslim :: Book 5 : Hadith 2348

Rabi'a b. Harith b. 'Abd al-Muttalib and Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib said to Abd al-Muttalib b. Rabi'a and Fadl b. Ibn Abbas: Go to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), and the rest of the Hadith is the same (but with this addition):" 'Ali spread his cloak and then lay down on it and said: I am the father of Hasan, and I am the chief. By Allah, I would not move from my place till your sons come back to you with the reply to that for which you sent them to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). And he then also said: Verily these sadaqat are the impurities of people, and they are not permissible for Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him), and for the family of Muhammad. And he also said: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) also said to me: Call Mahmiya b. Jaz', and he was person from Banu Asad. and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) had appointed him as a collector of khums.

1.1.3 Will it purify People?

Others try to conceal the view that Zakaah purifies goods by quoting the Narrations conveying the view that Zakaah purifies people.

خُذۡ مِنۡ أَمۡوَٲلِهِمۡ صَدَقَةً۬ تُطَهِّرُهُمۡ وَتُزَكِّيہِم بِہَا وَصَلِّ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ۖ إِنَّ صَلَوٰتَكَ سَكَنٌ۬ لَّهُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ

Surah: 9.At-Taubah Verse: 103

Take, [O, Muhammad], from their wealth a charity by which you purify them and cause them increase, and invoke [Allah's blessings] upon them. Indeed, your invocations are reassurance for them. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing. 

When Zakaah purifies People, does it deduce not to purify wealth?

When you say Needle is used to Stitch new clothes, does it mean that it cannot be used to stitch torn clothes?

We say that Zakaah purifies People, and also purifies Goods.

1.1.4 Why is Zakaah Obligatory for Inherited Assert?

People raise a marvelous (?) question that when Zakaah is for purifying Goods, why does it become obligatory for the inherited property also?

We all are aware that Zakaah is forbidden, impure for Allah’s Apostle.

One of the Companions got a thing, an impurity as Zakaah and gifted it to Allah’s Apostle. Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) referred it as “this is Charity for you, a gift for me”

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakaah)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 24 :: Hadith 570

Narrated Al-Aswad:

'Aisha intended to buy Barira (a slave-girl) in order to manumit her and her masters intended to put the condition that her Al-wala would be for them. 'Aisha mentioned that to the Prophet who said to her, "Buy her, as the "Wala" is for the manumitted." Once some meat was presented to the Prophet and 'Aisha said to him, "This (meat) was given in charity to Barira." He said, "It is an object of charity for Barira but a gift for us."

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakaah)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 24 :: Hadith 572

Narrated Anas:

Some meat was presented to the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) and it had been given to Barira (the freed slave-girl of Aisha) in charity. He said, "This meat is a thing of charity for Barira but it is a gift for us."

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakaah)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 24 :: Hadith 571

Narrated Um 'Atiyya Al-Ansariya :

The Prophet went to 'Aisha and asked her whether she had something (to eat). She replied that she had nothing except the mutton (piece) which Nusaiba (Um 'Atiyya) had sent to us (Buraira) in charity." The Prophet said, "It has reached its place and now it is not a thing of charity but a gift for us."

Gifts

Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 47 :: Hadith 752

Narrated 'Aisha:

I intended to buy Buraira but her masters stipulated that her Wala should be for them. When the Prophet was told about it, he said to me, "Buy and manumit her, as the Wala' is for the liberator." Once Buraira was given some meat, and the Prophet asked, "What is this?" I said, "It has been given to Buraira in charity." He said, "It is sadaqa for her but a gift for us." Buraira was given the option (to stay with her husband or to part with him). AbdurRahman (a sub-narrator) wondered, "Was her husband a slave or a free man?" Shu'ba (another sub-narrator) said, "I asked 'Abdur-Rahman whether her husband was a slave or a free man. He replied that he did not know whether he was a slave or a free man."

Gifts

Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 47 :: Hadith 751

Narrated Anas bin Malik:

Some meat was brought to the Prophet and it was said that the meat had been given in charity to Buraira. He said, "It was Sadaqa for Buraira but a gift for us."

Laws of Inheritance (Al-Faraa'id)

Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 80 :: Hadith 743

Narrated 'Aisha:

I bought Barira (a female slave). The Prophet said (to me), "Buy her as the Wala' is for the manumitted." Once she was given a sheep (in charity). The Prophet said, "It (the sheep) is a charitable gift for her (Barira) and a gift for us." Al-Hakam said, "Barira's husband was a free man." Ibn 'Abbas said, 'When I saw him, he was a slave."

The impurity from one Person changed from the impure state when moved to the other; similarly when one gets a Good from another, He should purify it for his account. 

They might even ask Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) “How impure good is purified?”

Another thing is to be clarified here. We present this only as supporting information. Even if Zakaah doesn’t intend to purify goods, there will be no consequence to our fundamental argument.

Few others question whether Jisya is mentioned as yearly (iteratively year after year)? And why do we take it as yearly.

This question is a result of ignorance over our Stance. If Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) never mentioned yearly (iteratively year after year) for Jisya, we would have taken the similar stance (as that of Zakaah).

We wouldn’t take up a decision based on the formerly determined fact.

2.0 Unacceptable Evidences

People in contrary principle lay forward few Evidences in support of their claim. These evidences are Da’eef in nature.

Of those, few instances, apart from being Da’eef , do not serve the purpose of supporting their claim.

Few other narrations, apart from being Da’eef , devastate other fundamentals of Islam.  

Let’s browse through all those Evidences one by one.

2.1 Orphans’ Wealth

عَنْ عَمْرو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ سَعِيدٍ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: اِبْتَغُوا بِأَمْوالِ الْيَتَامَى لاَ تَأْكُلُهَا الصَّدَقَةُ

Sunan at-Tirmithhee 581

‘Amr  Ibn  Shu‘ayb   reported  from   Sa‘eed  Ibn  al-Musayyab that [the second Righteous Caliph,] ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattaab, said: “Trade with the orphans’ wealth so that Zakaah will not consume it.”

2.1.1 Misconception

They quote this Narration as their evidence. Let us focus on the Authenticity of this Narration and state of their claim after understanding their view from this Narration.

Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) wouldn’t have told that “Zakaah would consume the wealth for which Zakaah has been previously been paid” if Zakaah is not obligatory on Goods (for which Zakaah has previously been paid) yearly. If 2.5% Zakaah is paid once, balance 97.5% would be leftover. But, if Zakaah is paid every year, Wealth would gradually degrade and hence Trade Orphans’ wealth to prevent it from getting corrupted. Hence, they claim that Zakaah is to be repeatedly taken from the same wealth as long as it is above the nisab.

2.1.2 Grade of the Narration

2.1.2.1 Narration-1

Their claim becomes deficient in the very sight since the above cited Narration not Authentic.

Imam Sunan at-Tirmithhee, who documented this Hadhees, mentions in the foot of the Narration that “There is gossip in the Narrators’ chain because Al-Muthannaa Ibn as-Sabaah is Feeble”

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ إِسْمَعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بْنُ مُوسَى حَدَّثَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ عَنْ الْمُثَنَّى بْنِ الصَّبَّاحِ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ جَدِّهِ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَطَبَ النَّاسَ فَقَالَ أَلَا مَنْ وَلِيَ يَتِيمًا لَهُ مَالٌ فَلْيَتَّجِرْ فِيهِ وَلَا يَتْرُكْهُ حَتَّى تَأْكُلَهُ الصَّدَقَةُ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَإِنَّمَا رُوِيَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثُ مِنْ هَذَا الْوَجْهِ وَفِي إِسْنَادِهِ مَقَالٌ لِأَنَّ الْمُثَنَّى بْنَ الصَّبَّاحِ يُضَعَّفُ فِي الْحَدِيثِ وَرَوَى بَعْضُهُمْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ فَذَكَرَ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ وَقَدْ اخْتَلَفَ أَهْلُ الْعِلْمِ فِي هَذَا الْبَابِ فَرَأَى غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ زَكَاةً مِنْهُمْ عُمَرُ وَعَلِيٌّ وَعَائِشَةُ وَابْنُ عُمَرَ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ مَالِكٌ وَالشَّافِعِيُّ وَأَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَقُ وَقَالَتْ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ لَيْسَ فِي مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ زَكَاةٌ وَبِهِ يَقُولُ سُفْيَانُ الثَّوْرِيُّ وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ الْمُبَارَكِ وَعَمْرُو بْنُ شُعَيْبٍ هُوَ ابْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ وَشُعَيْبٌ قَدْ سَمِعَ مِنْ جَدِّهِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو وَقَدْ تَكَلَّمَ يَحْيَى بْنُ سَعِيدٍ فِي حَدِيثِ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ وَقَالَ هُوَ عِنْدَنَا وَاهٍ وَمَنْ ضَعَّفَهُ فَإِنَّمَا ضَعَّفَهُ مِنْ قِبَلِ أَنَّهُ يُحَدِّثُ مِنْ صَحِيفَةِ جَدِّهِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو وَأَمَّا أَكْثَرُ أَهْلِ الْحَدِيثِ فَيَحْتَجُّونَ بِحَدِيثِ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ فَيُثْبِتُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ أَحْمَدُ وَإِسْحَقُ وَغَيْرُهُمَا رواه الترمذي

The same Narration is documented in Sunan ad-Daarqutnee also.

 حدثنا علي بن محمد المصري ثنا الحسن بن غليب الهذلي الأزدي ثنا سعيد بن عفير ثنا يحيى بن أيوب عن المثنى بن الصباح عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده عبد الله بن عمرو بن العاص أن رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم قام فخطب الناس فقال من ولي يتيما له مال فليتجر له ولا يتركه حتى تأكله الصدقة سنن الدارقطني ج: 2 ص: 109  

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/109 No 1

In the above cited Hadhees, note the transmission via Musanna bin Sabbah.

2.1.2.1.1 Scandals pertaining to Al-Muthannaa Ibn as-Sabaah

Scholars of Hadhees science have gossiped about him.

 المثنى بن الصباح عن عطاء وعمرو بن شعيب حدثنا محمد بن عيسى قال حدثنا عمرو بن علي قال كان يحيى وعبد الرحمن لا يحدثان عن المثنى بن الصباح حدثنا محمد بن زكريا قال حدثنا محمد بن المثنى قال ما سمعت يحيى بن أبي عبد الرحمن حدث عن سفيان عن المثنى بن الصباح شيئا قط حدثنا عبد الله بن أحمد قال سمعت أبي يقول مثنى بن الصباح لا يسوى حديثه شيئا مضطرب الحديث حدثنا محمد بن زكريا قال حدثنا الحسن بن شجاع قال حدثنا علي قال سمعت يحيى وذكر عنده المثنى بن الصباح فقال لم أتركه من أجل حديث عمرو بن شعيب ولكن كان اختلاطا منه أو قال فيه حدثنا محمد بن عيسى قال حدثنا إبراهيم بن سعيد الجوهري قال سمعت يحيى بن معين قال كان المثنى بن الصباح رجلا صالحا في نفسه وفي الحديث ليس بذاك وكان من أبناء فارس مات سنة تسع وأربعين ومائة حدثنا محمد بن أحمد قال حدثنا معاوية بن صالح قال سمعت يحيى قال المثنى بن الصباح ضعيف يكتب حديثه لا يترك  الضعفاء الكبير ج 4 /ص 249

                                    Ad-Du‘afaa al-Kabeer 4/249

 

Amr Bin Ali reported that Scholars of Hadhees science Yahya and Abdur Rahman never narrated via Musanna bin Sabbah.

 

Imam Ahmed bin Hambal told that his Narrations are not right and that he modifies the narration.

Yahya reports that he doesn’t narrate anything via him because he is mentally disturbed.

 

Yahya bin Maiyeen reported that though as a human he is good; in the field of Hadhees he is not precise. He also added that his Hadhees can be documented, and that he is Feeble.

د ت ق أبي داود والترمذي وابن ماجة المثنى بن الصباح اليماني الأبناوي أبو عبد الله ويقال أبو يحيى المكي أصله من أبناء فارس ... قال إسحاق بن منصور عن بن معين ضعيف ... وقال بن أبي حاتم سألت أبي أبا زرعة عنه فقالا لين الحديث قال أبي يروي عن عطاء ما لم يرو عنه أحد وهو ضعيف الحديث وقال الجوزجاني لا يقنع بحديثه وقال الترمذي يضعف في الحديث وقال النسائي ليس بثقة وقال في موضع آخر متروك الحديث ... قال بن سعد وله أحاديث وهو ضعيف وقال علي بن الجنيد متروك الحديث وقال الدارقطني ضعيف ...وقال بن حبان في الضعفاء ... وقال بن عمار ضعيف وقال الساجي ضعيف الحديث جدا حدث بمناكير ويطول ذكرها وكان عابدا يهم وقال أبو أحمد الحاكم ليس بالقوي عندهم وضعفه أيضا سحنون الفقيه وغيره وذكره العقيلي في الضعفاء وأورد عن علي بن المديني سمعت يحيى القطان وذكر عنده المثنى فقال لم تتركه من أجل حديث عمرو بن شعيب ولكن كان اختلاط منه  تهذيب التهذيب ج 10 /ص 32

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 10/32

Imam Hafiz Ibn Hajar quotes that Imams Nasayee, Abu Soorah, Ali bin Al-Junaidh, Sunan ad-Daarqutnee, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Ammar, Haji, Abu Ahmed, Abu Hathim, Jawsajani, Sunan at-Tirmithhee, Ibn Sa’adh, Ibn Ammar, Hakim, Ukaili, Yahya Al Katthan, Yahya bin Syed and Yahya bin Mayeen have referred him as Feeble in Sunan ad-Daarqutnee (10/32).

Since the Narrator Al-Muthannaa Ibn as-Sabaah is feeble, policies cannot be enforced with reference to this narration.

2.1.2.2 Narration-2

The same Hadhees is documented via a Narrator other than Al-Muthannaa Ibn as-Sabaah.

 حدثنا أبو محمد بن صاعد ثنا أحمد بن عبيد بن إسحاق العطار بالكوفة ثنا أبي (عبيد بن إسحاق العطار ) ثنا مندل عن أبي إسحاق الشيباني عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم احفظوا اليتامى في أموالهم لا تأكلها الزكاة   سنن الدارقطني ج: 2 ص: 110  

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/110-2

This is narrated via ‘Ubayd Ibn Is’haaq and Mindhal, both of them are Feeble/Da’eef.

 د ق أبي داود وابن ماجة مندل بن علي العنزي أبو عبد الله الكوفي يقال اسمه عمرو ومندل ... وقال عبد الله بن أحمد عن أبيه ضعيف الحديث ... قال بن أبي خيثمة عن بن معين ليس بشيء ...وقال العجلي جائز الحديث وكان البخاري ادخل مندلا فبالضعفاء فقال أبي يحول وسئل أبو زرعة عن مندل فقال لين الحديث وسئل أبي عن مندل فقال شيخ وقال علي بن الحسين بن الجنيد عن محمد بن عبد الله بن نمير في أحاديثهما بعض الغلط وقال النسائي ضعيف وقال بن عدي له غرائب وأفراد وهو ممكن يكتب حديثه ...وقال الجوزجاني واهي الحديث وقال الحاكم أبو أحمد ليس بالقوي عندهم وقال الساجي ليس بثقة روى مناكير وقال لي بن مثنى كان عبد الرحمن بن مهدي لا يحدث عنه وقال بن قانع والدار قطني ضعيف وقال بن مثنى كان عبد الرحمن بن مهدي لا يحدث عنه وقال بن قانع والدار قطني ضعيف وقال بن حبان كان ممن يرفع المراسيل ويسند الموقوفات من سوء حفظه فاستحق الترك وقال الطحاوي ليس من أهل التثبت في الرواية بشيء ولا يحتج به  تهذيب التهذيب ج 10 /ص 264  

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 10/264

2.1.2.2.1 Scandals pertaining to Mindhal

Many Scholars including Ahmad Ibn Hambal, Yahya bin Mayeen, Ali bin Mathyani, Bukhari, Abu Sur’ah, Nasayee, Ibn Adhi, Abu Hassan, Jawsajani, AbuAhmed, Hakim, Haji, Abdur Rahman bin Mahdhee, Ibn Kaanih, Sunan ad-Daarqutnee, Dhahavi cites him as Da’eef . There are two contrary views of Ibn Mayeen that he is Da’eef  and that he is reliable. Though Muadh bin Muadh and Ajali have only recommended to accept his Narration, people opposing this view have blamed him of “Poor Memory” with respect to various valid references. Hence, only this view should be accepted.

Hence the above Hadhees connecting Mindhal cannot be used to regulate any policy.

2.1.2.2.2 Scandals pertaining to ‘Ubayd Ibn Is’haaq

Another Narrator of the above cited Hadhees; ‘Ubayd Ibn Is’haaq is also Da’eef ,

 عبيد بن إسحاق العطار كوفي يقال له عطار المطلقات حدثنا بن حماد ثنا العباس عن يحيى قال عبيد عطار المطلقات قلت له هذه الأحاديث التي يحدث بها باطل قال اتق الله ويحك قلت وهو باطل فسكت وسمعت بن حماد يقول قال البخاري عبيد العطار هو منكر الحديث ...  الكامل في الضعفاء ج 5 /ص 347

Al Kaamil 5/347

Imams like Bukhari and Yahya have told that his Hadhees are in the state of Munkar (to be rejected). His False Narrations have been explained in detail in the above cited Book.

Since the above cited Hadhees involves two Da’eef Narrators, this cannot also be taken as Evidence.

حدثنا أحمد قال حدثنا عبد العزيز قال حدثنا مندل بن علي عن سليمان عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده عن النبي قال ابتغوا اليتامى في أموالهم لا تأكلها الزكاة المعجم الأوسط ج: 1 ص: 298

Tabaraanee’s Al-Mu‘jam al-Awsat 1/298 -998

2.1.2.3 Narration-3

The Same Hadhees is documented by a different chain of narrators. Though Ubayd bin Is’haq is omitted, Mindhal bin Ali’s (whose reliability is already cited) is found in the Narrators chain.

 حدثنا محمد بن الحسن بن علي البزاز ثنا الحسين بن عبد الله بن يزيد القطان ثنا أيوب بن محمد الوزان ثنا رواد بن الجراح ثنا محمد بن عبيد الله عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده قال قال رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  في مال   اليتيم زكاة سنن الدارقطني ج: 2 ص: 110  

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/110-3

The above cited Hadhees is documented via Narrators other than these three.

محمد بن عبيد الله العرزمي كنيته أبو عبد الرحمن ...وكان صدوقا إلا أن كتبه ذهبت وكان رديء الحفظ فجعل يحدث من حفظه ويهم فكثر المناكير في روايته تركه بن المبارك ويحيى القطان وابن مهدي ويحيى بن معين المجروحين ج 2 /ص 246  

Majrooheen 2/246

Though these three Narrators are absent in this Hadhees, the chain includes Muhammadh Bin Ubaidhullah (Al Asrami) who is also unreliable.

Though he is Truthful, his books are destroyed, had poor Memory. While narrating the Hadhees in his Memory, He would narrate it incorrect. He has narrated many reject-able Hadhees. Ibn Mubarak, Yahya bin Al Katthan, Ibn Mahdhi, Yahya bin Mayeen have discarded him.

Hence this cannot be benchmarked to devise any stringent policy.

حدثنا علي قال نا الفرات بن محمد القيرواني قال نا شجرة بن عيسى المعافري عن عبد الملك بن ابي كريمة عن عمارة بن غزية عن يحيى بن سعيد عن انس بن مالك قال قال رسول الله ص اتجروا في اموال اليتامى لا تأكلها الزكاة المعجم الأوسط ج: 4 ص: 264  

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 4/264 – 4152

 

2.1.2.4 Narration-4

This is also documented via some other narrators other than the four quoted above.

These narrations are also not Authentic. This chain includes Furradh bin Muhammadh and Umara bin Kasiyya. Both of whom are Da’eef.

فرات بن محمد بن فرات العبدي القيرواني ...وقال بن حارث كان يغلب عليه الرواية والجمع ومعرفة الاخبار وكان ضعيفا متهما بالكذب أو معروفا به مات سنة اثنتين وتسعين ومائتين لسان الميزان ج 4 /ص 432

Lisaan al-Meezaan 4/432

عمارة بن   غزية  حدثنا محمد بن عيسى قال حدثنا صالح قال حدثنا علي قال قلت لسفيان كنت جالست عمارة بن   غزية  قال نعم جالسته كم من مرة فلم أحفظ عنه شيئا ثم قال لي سفيان إيش روى قلت بن أبي سعيد الخدري عن أبيه قال من سأل وله أوقية قال سفيان هذا وحدثناه عن زيد بن أسلم عن عطاء بن يسار ضعفاء العقيلي ج: 3 ص: 315  

Ad-Du‘afaa Ukaili 3/315

In Lisanul Missan, it is pointed out that apart from being Feeble, he is also suspected to be Liar.

Umara Bin Kassiya

Another Narrator Umara bin Kassiya is also Da’eef.

Sufayan have quoted that though he used to sit with him several times, I havent memorized any Hadhees from him. He also added that he hasn’t seen any Appreciative comment about him.

Hence the Hadhees pertaining to Orphans’ wealth is Da’eef with respect to various reasons and hence this cannot be taken as a reference to devise any policy.

Apart from this, explanation of Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) is documented in various books such as Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/110, Al-Bayhaqee 4/107 and 6/2, Musannad Shafi 1/204, Muwatha 1/251, Musannab Abdur Razzak 4/69.

Since Muslims are bound to follow only Quran and Sunnah (Words, Deeds and Recommendations of Allah’s Apostle). As others dint receive any divine Guidance (Wahi), those cannot be used to devise Islamic Policies.

In another narration of Al-Bayhaqee 4/107, though documented as Allah’s
Apostle’s explanation and reported via precise Narrator, Imam Al-Bayhaqee himself stated that its narrator chain is broken.

أخبرنا أبو زكريا بن أبي إسحاق المزكي في آخرين قالوا ثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب أنبأ الربيع بن سليمان أنبأ الشافعي أنبأ عبد المجيد عن بن جريج عن يوسف بن ماهك أن رسول الله عليه وسلم قال ابتغوا في مال اليتيم أو في أموال اليتامى لا تذهبها أو لا تستهلكها الصدقة وهذا مرسل إلا أن الشافعي رحمه الله أكده بالاستدلال بالخبر الأول وبما روي عن الصحابة رضي الله عنهم في ذلك وقد روي عن عمرو بن شعيب عن أبيه عن جده مرفوعا  سنن البيهقي الكبرى ج 4 ص 107  

Al-Bayhaqee 4/107

Hence, their first Evidence becomes void.

2.1.3 Hadhees doesn’t imply “Yearly”

Apart from this, if the Hadhees is assumed (?) to be Authentic, Their claim cannot be established with reference to this Hadhees.

This Da’eef Hadhees only states that “Zakaah will consume Orphans’ wealth”. But the word “yearly” is actually not present. This is their self inclusion.

If Zakaah will consume Wealth, monthly Zakaah (?) will consume sooner than annual. Hence, if we argue that Zakaah is monthly, they would remain unspoken.

Another could argue that it is weekly (?) as weekly Zakaah would consume it sooner. Yet another could argue that it could be daily (?).

It can also be inferred as 5 times a day (?) just like Salah. The claim that Zakaah is “Yearly” is also included in the Hadhees just like all these claims.

This is presented only as an argument and as additional information. The fundamental is that the Hadhees is Unauthentic.

This is reiterated several times in this article because people in contrary principle discard the fundamental and give lengthy denial (?) for those arguments which are used as examples and supportive information.

They are obliged to prove that the above Cited Hadhees is not Unauthentic.

2.1.4 Injustice to Orphan

We explored the Un-Authenticity of the Hadhees and the absence of the phrase “Yearly”. Apart from this it’s Guidance is also not in harmony with the Islam.

A person is referred to as Orphan only until his youth. As per their agreed Islamic Consent, none of the agreement would be valid until the person attains his youth.

Orphans’ consent is required if his/her wealth (assert) is to be used in trade.

 

وَلَا تَقۡرَبُواْ مَالَ ٱلۡيَتِيمِ إِلَّا بِٱلَّتِى هِىَ أَحۡسَنُ حَتَّىٰ يَبۡلُغَ أَشُدَّهُ ۥ‌ۚ وَأَوۡفُواْ بِٱلۡعَهۡدِ‌ۖ إِنَّ ٱلۡعَهۡدَ كَانَ مَسۡـُٔولاً۬

 

And do not approach the property of an orphan, except in the way that is best, until he reaches maturity. And fulfill [every] commitment. Indeed, the commitment is ever [that about which one will be] questioned.

Surah: 17.Al-Isra'. Verse: 34

 

Since the Orphan is not in the state of decision making, the Guardian has no rights in using his Assert in trade.

Due to this reason the Hadhees further Weakens. Again, this is supportive information. We also remind that people in contrary principle need not deviate by addressing (?) only this supportive claim and discard the fundamental.

Trade comprise of profit as well as Loss.

As per their argument, Orphans’ wealth would be consumed by Zakaah after several years. But, it would be consumed in a month or even in a day. Moreover, as per their argument, if wealth shrinks until nisab, at least this wealth would be left for the Orphan. But, if trade is bankrupt, nothing might stay behind.

This Unauthentic Hadhees claims that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) meant that Zakaah would consume the Wealth.

But, as per their argument, there is no chance for the wealth to be totally consumed if Zakaah is paid once in a year. For instance, assume that a Guardian has to take care of a one year old Orphan. The guardian should maintain only until he attains youth which could be approximately 15 years. Assuming 2.5% of the Wealth for calculation:

If Zakaah is paid on Rs. 100,000, Rs.2500 would be paid in the first year, Rs. 2437.80 in the second year and so on. At the end of 15 years, the maximum Zakaah paid would be Rs. 31,598. Rs. 68,402 would still stay behind. As per this, wealth would not disintegrate or be consumed by Zakaah as stated in the Unauthentic Hadhees.

Since Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) wouldn’t have given such meaningless statement, hence further weakens the Hadhees.

This is again supportive information. The fundamental is that the Hadhees is Unauthentic. Answer is obliged only for the Authenticity of the Hadhees.

Moreover this would pave way for doing injustice to Orphans’ wealth.

Affirming that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) wouldn’t have left room for Guardians to fabricate that Wealth of the Orphan is lost in Trade, further weakens the Hadhees.

2.2 Narration citing Zakaah paid in advance

People iterating that Zakaah is obligatory on Wealth for which Zakaah has been previously paid, point to yet another narration to support their claim.

Ibn ‘Abbaas said: Allaah’s Messenger (r) sent ‘Umar to collect Zakaah. When he came to al-‘Abbaas requesting the Zakaah of his wealth, al-‘Abbaas spoke to him in a rough manner. He left and returned to the Prophet (r) and informed him. Allaah’s Messenger (r) said, “Indeed al-‘Abbaas has paid the Zakaah of his wealth for this year and the year to come.28

Similar Narrations are documented in some Hadhees books.

Based on this, people insist to pay Zakaah for Wealth for which Zakaah has been previously paid. Their claim is that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) collected Zakaah in advance because it is obligatory every year on same wealth.

Let’s explore the Authenticity of this Narration and even if assumed to be Authentic, let’s analyze if there is room for their claim.

This Narration also cannot be considered as Evidence.

2.2.1 Grade of Narrations

2.2.1.1 Narration-1

حدثنا أحمد بن محمد بن سعيد ثنا محمد بن عبيد بن عتبة ثنا وليد بن حماد ثنا الحسن بن زياد عن الحسن بن عمارة عن الحكم عن موسى بن طلحة عن طلحة أن النبي  قال   يا عمر أما علمت أن عم الرجل صنو أبيه إنا كنا احتجنا إلى مال فتعجلنا من العباس صدقة ماله لسنتين اختلفوا عن الحكم في إسناده والصحيح عن الحسن بن مسلم مرسل سنن الدارقطني ج 2 ص 124  

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/124 - 6

The narrators’ chain includes Hasan Bin Umaar who is Da’eef .

خت ت ق البخاري في التعاليق والترمذي وابن ماجة الحسن بن عمارة بن المضرب البجلي مولاهم الكوفي أبو محمد كان على قضاء بغداد في خلافة المنصور ... قال النضر بن شميل عن شعبة أفادني الحسن بن عمارة سبعين حديثا عن الحكم فلم يكن لها أصل ... وقال الطيالسي قال شعبة ائت جرير بن حازم فقل له لا يحل لك أن تروي عن الحسن بن عمارة فإنه يكذب قال أبو داود فقلت لشعبة ما علامة ذلك قال روى عن الحكم أشياء فلم نجد لها أصلا ... عن أحمد متروك الحديث وكذا قال أبو طالب عنه وزاد قلت له كان له هوى قال ولكن كان منكر الحديث وأحاديثه موضوعة لا يكتب حديثه وقال مرة ليس بشيء وقال بن معين لا يكتب حديثه وقال مرة ضعيف وقال مرة ليس حديثه بشيء وقال عبد الله بن المديني عن أبيه ما أحتاج إلى شعبة فيه أمره أبين من ذلك قيل له كان يغلط فقال أي شيء كان يغلط كان يضع وقال أبو حاتم ومسلم والنسائي والدارقطني متروك الحديث  تهذيب التهذيب ج 2 /ص 263 

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 2/263

Hasan Bin Umaar narrated 70 narrations using Hakam’s name.

Shufa reports that of those narrations, none are baseless. (This narration is also reported via Hakam). Shufa further told Jareer Bin Haasim not to report narrations via Hasan Bin Umaar who is a Liar. Ahmad Ibn Hambal suggested to discard his narrations and added that his Narrations are fabricated and hence should not be documented. Ibn Mayeem also quoted the same view. Scholars including Abdullah Bin AlMathyani, AbuHaatham, Muslim, Nasayee and Sunan ad-Daarqutnee recommended discarding his Narrations.

 

Hence this Narration, reported via a Narrator; who is doubted a Liar cannot be referred to decide upon paying Zakaah every year.       

2.2.1.2 Narration-2

...ورواه محمد بن عبيد الله هو العرزمي عن الحكم عن مقسم عن بن عباس في قصة عمر والعباس رضي الله عنهما ورواه الحسن بن عمارة عن الحكم عن موسى بن طلحة عن طلحة ورواه هشيم عن منصور بن زاذان عن الحكم عن الحسن بن مسلم عن النبي  صلى الله عليه وسلم  مرسلا أنه قال لعمر رضي الله عنه في هذه القصة إنا كنا قد تعجلنا صدقة مال العباس لعامنا هذا عام أول وهذا هو الأصح من هذه الروايات وروي عن علي رضي الله عنه من وجه آخر  سنن البيهقي الكبرى ج: 4 ص: 111  

                                                        Al-Bayhaqee 4/111

Hassan Bin Umaar and Muhammad Bin Ubaidhullah AlAsrami are connected to this similar narration. The facts for his Weakness are already provided.

Hence, this is Weaker than the previous narration.

2.2.1.3 Narration-3

Apart from these, there is yet another Narration.

 حدثنا محمد بن أحمد بن عمرو بن عبد الخالق ثنا إبراهيم بن محمد بن نائلة الأصبهاني ثنا محمد بن المغيرة ثنا النعمان بن عبد السلام عن محمد بن عبيد الله عن الحكم عن مقسم عن بن عباس قال   بعث رسول الله  عمر ساعيا قال فأتى العباس يطلب صدقة ماله قال فأغلظ له العباس فخرج إلى النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فأخبره قال فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  إن العباس قد أسلفنا زكاة ماله العام والعام المقبل سنن الدارقطني ج 2 ص 124  

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/124

2.2.1.4 Narration-4

حدثنا محمد بن مخلد ومحمد بن جعفر المطيري قالا نا أبو خراسان محمد بن أحمد بن السكن ثنا موسى بن داود ثنا مندل بن علي عن عبيد الله عن الحكم وقال المطيري عن عبيد الله عن الحكم عن مقسم عن بن عباس   أن رسول الله  بعث عمر على الصدقة فرجع وهو يشكو العباس فقال إنه منعني صدقته فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يا عمر أما علمت أن عم الرجل صنو أبيه إن العباس أسلفنا صدقة عامين في عام كذا قال عن عبيد الله بن عمر وإنما أراد محمد بن عبيد الله وهو العزرمي) والله أعلم سنن الدارقطني ج 2 ص 124

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/124-8

Note the presence of Muhammadh Bin Ubaidhullah AlAsrami in the sequence.

Facts for his Weakness are already provided. Hence no policy could be devised with reference to this narration.

2.2.1.5 Narration-5

The same narration is also documented via a different chain also.

حدثنا أحمد قال حدثنا محرز بن عوف قال حدثنا محمد بن ذكوان عن منصور عن إبراهيم عن علقمة عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله   إن عم الرجل صنو أبيه وإن النبي تعجل من العباس صدقة عامين في عام المعجم الأوسط ج 1 ص 299    

At-Tabaraanee’s al-Awsat, 1/299

حدثنا أحمد بن داود المكي ثنا أبو عون الزيادي ثنا محمد بن ذكوان عن منصور عن إبراهيم عن علقمة عن عبد الله قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم  إن عم الرجل صنو أبيه وإن النبي  تعجل من العباس صدقة عامين في عام المعجم الكبير ج 10 ص 72  

At-Tabaraanee’s Kabeer 10/72

Muhammad bin Dhakwan is connected to both these narrations.

 محمد بن ذكوان مولى الجهاضم بصري حدثني آدم قال سمعت البخاري قال محمد بن ذكوان مولى الجهاضم منكر الحديث  الضعفاء الكبير ج 4 /ص 65

Ad-Du‘afaa al-Kabeer 4/65

Imam Bukhari told that his Narrations are to be rejected.

Hence this also cannot be taken as Evidence.

 

2.2.1.6 Narration-6

أخبرنا أبو نصر بن قتادة أنبأ أبو علي الرفاء ثنا محمد بن يونس الكديمي ثنا وهب بن جرير ح وأخبرناه محمد بن الحسين بن الفضل القطان أنبأ عبد الله بن جعفر ثنا يعقوب بن سفيان ثنا عيسى بن محمد ثنا وهب بن جرير ثنا أبي قال سمعت الأعمش يحدث عن عمرو بن مرة عن أبي البختري عن علي رضي الله عنه فذكر قصة في بعث رسول الله  عمر رضي الله عنه ساعيا ومنع العباس صدقته وأنه ذكر للنبي  ما صنع العباس فقال   أما علمت يا عمر أن عم الرجل صنو أبيه إنا كنا احتجنا فاستسلفنا العباس صدقة عامين لفظ حديث القطان وفي رواية بن قتادة أن النبي  تعجل من العباس صدقة عام أو صدقة عامين وفي هذا إرسال بين أبي البختري وعلي رضي الله عنه وقد ورد هذا المعنى في حديث أبي هريرة من وجه ثابت عنه  سنن البيهقي الكبرى ج 4 ص 111  

                           Al-Bayhaqee 4/111

The narration is also reported via yet another path. It is said that Abul Bukthari reports via Ali (May Allah be pleased with them). Though the narrators are reliable, Abul Bukthari have not met Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) and reported. Imam Al-Bayhaqee himself specifies this in the end. Since there is no link between Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) and Abul Bukthari, this is also Unauthentic.

Imam Al-Bayhaqee adds that there is an Authentic Narration implying analogous message. This Authentic Narration is documented in Bukhari and Muslim but it has been previously explained that it doesn’t imply the similar message.

2.2.1.7 Narration-7

There is yet another narration documented in Sunan ad-Daarqutnee.

 حدثنا عبد الله بن محمد بن عبد العزيز ثنا عبد الله بن عمر بن أبان ثنا أبو داود عن شريك عن إسماعيل عن سليمان الأحول عن أبي رافع   أن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بعث عمر ساعيا فكان بينه وبين العباس شيء فقال النبي  أما علمت أن الرجل صنو أبيه إن العباس أسلفنا صدقة العام عام الأول سنن الدارقطني ج 2 ص 125                            

Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/125-9

The narrator Chain is linked to Ismael Makki who is Da’eef.

Apart from this, is also documented in Bassar and Abuya’la where in Hassan Bin Umaar; is linked to the narrators’ chain which makes the narration Da’eef.

وحدثنا الحسن بن يحيى قال نا محمد بن عون أبو عون قال نا محمد بن ذكوان عن منصور عن إبراهيم عن علقمة عن عبد الله أن النبي تعجل من العباس صدقة سنتين وهذا الحديث إنما يرويه الحفاظ عن منصور عن الحكم بن عتيبة مرسلا ومحمد بن ذكوان هذا لين الحديث قد حدث بأحاديث كثيرة لم يتابع عليها  مسند البزار 4-9 ج: 4 ص: 303  

                                                  Bassar 4/303

Muhammad Bin Thakwan is linked to another narration in Bassara; who is again a Da’eef.

حدثنا حميد بن مسعدة حدثنا يوسف بن خالد حدثنا الحسن بن عمارة عن الحكم بن عتيبة وحبيب بن أبي ثابت عن موسى بن طلحة عن أبيه ثم أن رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  كان تعجل  صدقة العباس  بن عبد المطلب سنتين مسند أبي يعلى ج: 2 ص: 12

                                   AbuYa’la 2/12

Hassan Bin Umaar is linked to another narration of Bassar. Hassan Bin Umaar is undoubtedly proved Da’eef.

Some more narrations are documented in books like Ahmed, Hakim, Ibn Maaja and Abu Dawud. In these Narrations Suhail contrasts himself because he quotes this Narration as told by Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) sometimes and a Non-Companion Hassan Bin Muslim sometimes. Scholars Sunan ad-Daarqutnee and Ahmed researched this and stated that the actual narration is via Non-Companion. That is, they reject his claim of being narrated by Companion. This detail is documented in the book At-Talkees.

Narration of Allah’s Apostle apart from Companions is to be rejected.

Since these Narrations are not Authentic, policies cannot be formulated with reference to this.

2.2.2 Contrary to the Authentic Narration

These Narrations apart from either being broken or Da’eef with respect to Narrator’s chain are in the state of Fabricated Narrations since it is in contrary to this Authentic Narration.

The Book of Zakaah (Kitab Al-Zakaah)

Muslim :: Book 5 : Hadith 2148

Abu Huraira reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) sent Umar for (collecting) Sadaqa (Zakaah), and it was said that Ibn Jamil, Khalid b. Walid and 'Abbas the uncle of the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him), refused (to pay it). Upon this the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: Ibn Jamil is taking revenge but for this that he was destitute and Allah made him rich. As regards Khalid, you are unjust to Khalid, for be reserved his armours and weapons for the sake of Allah, and as for 'Abbas, I shall be responsible for it and an equal amount along with it. And he again said: 'Umar, bear this in mind, the uncle of a person is like his father.

In the narration of Bukhari it is reported that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) told: “Zakaah is compulsory on him and he should pay it double”

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakaah)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 24 :: Hadith 547

Narrated Abu Huraira

Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) ordered (a person) to collect Zakaah, and that person returned and told him that Ibn Jamil, Khalid bin Al-Walid, and Abbas bin 'Abdul Muttalib had refused to give Zakaah." The Prophet said, "What made Ibn Jamil refuse to give Zakaah though he was a poor man, and was made wealthy by Allah and His Apostle? But you are unfair in asking Zakaah from Khalid as he is keeping his armor for Allah's Cause (for Jihad). As for Abbas bin 'Abdul Muttalib, he is the uncle of Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) and Zakaah is compulsory on him and he should pay it double."

There are no deficiencies in these Narrations. If the cruxes of these narrations are noted significantly, we would infer that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)did not collect two years Zakaah instead, he collected it along with an equal amount with it.

On observing this Narration casually, even a Lehman would infer that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) collected twice the sum of Zakaah from those who refused to pay Zakaah. For instance, if one refuses to pay Rs. 10, a collection of Rs. 20 refers to be a punishment for not paying. This is simply comprehensible.

It would be relevant to remind the remarks made in this regard in Father Ul Bari: The elucidation of Bukhari.

قوله فهي عليه صدقة ومثلها معها كذا في رواية شعيب ولم يقل ورقاء ولا موسى بن عقبة صدقة فعلى الروايةالأولى يكون صلى الله عليه وسلم ألزمه بتضعيف صدقته ليكون أرفع لقدره وأنبه لذكره وأنفى للذم عنه فالمعنى فهي صدقة ثابتة عليه سيصدق بها ويضيف إليها مثلها كرما ودلت رواية مسلم على أنه  صلى الله عليه وسلم  إلتزم بإخراج ذلك عنه لقوله فهي على وفيه تنبيه على سبب ذلك وهو قوله إن العم صنو الأب تفضيلا له وتشريفا ويحتمل أن يكون تحمل عنه بها فيستفاد منه أن الزكاة تتعلق بالذمة كما هو أحد قولي الشافعي وجمع بعضهم بين رواية علي ورواية عليه بأن الأصل رواية علي ورواية عليه مثلها إلا أن فيها زيادة هاه السكت حكاه بن الجوزي عن بن ناصر وقيل معنى قوله علي أي هي عندي قرض لأنني استسلفت منه صدقة عامين فتح الباري ج: 3 ص: 333  

The reason for Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) collecting double the Zakaah from him is to equate it with his Status and that there should be no blame on him. This refers to the collection of Zakaah and a part equal to it as supplementary. (Fathe ul Bari 3/333).

Ibn Hajar have enlightened that Zakaah collected equal to twice the actual is not for two years but in supplementary.

Abbas’ (May Allah be pleased with them) refusal is similar in narrations of Bukhari and Muslim. And this is Authentic.

It is contrary in other Books and which is Unauthentic. Moreover, since it contradicts these Authentic Narrations, the narration is degraded into the fabricated state.

2.2.3 Can Zakaah be collected in advance?

Since the Narration wherein Zakaah was collected in advance from Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) is Unauthentic, the claim based on this becomes invalid.

Moreover this Narration is further weakened with various reasons.

If for an instance, we assume that Zakaah is obligatory on the Wealth for which Zakaah has previously been paid, collecting Zakaah in advance is not practical.

Zakaah is not counted with respect to head counts. Instead, it is counted across the value of ones’ Assert.

As per their claim, the current years Zakaah can be collected because it is feasible to calculate his current years Asserts.

But, will it be possible to calculate the next year’s Assert?

As per their claim, Zakaah is obligatory only on completion of one year. Won’t it be unfair if Zakaah is collected before the completion of the next year?

If one owns Rs. 500,000 this year, will it be possible to collect the same amount as Zakaah for Rs. 500,000 in the next year? If this amount drains before next year, won’t the Zakaah collected for Rs.500, 000 be unfair?

Or if he departs before the year end, as per their claim, Zakaah is not obligatory for that year. If this is the case, how could Zakaah collected in advance is justified?

Will these people; (who argue based on this Da’eef Narration) agree if someone is willing to pay Zakaah for the next 10 years? If in these 10 years, the Wealth multiplies, or disintegrates or even if the person departs, how will they pay for the injustice?

This thought further emphasizes that Zakaah collected for 2 years in advance is a fabricated narration

They are bound to prove these narrations as Authentic and rather not try to shred axioms over the supporting information. They are also bound to explain the state of the narrations in Bukhari and Muslim.

2.3 Zakaah not obliged until a year passes on it

People insisting to pay Zakaah for the goods for which Zakaah has been previously been paid, quote the following narration to support their claim.

حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى بْنُ مُوسَى حَدَّثَنَا هَارُونُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ الطَّلْحِيُّ الْمَدَنِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ زَيْدِ بْنِ أَسْلَمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ ابْنِ عُمَرَ قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَنْ اسْتَفَادَ مَالًا فَلَا زَكَاةَ عَلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ عِنْدَ رَبِّهِ وَفِي الْبَاب عَنْ سَرَّاءَ بِنْتِ نَبْهَانَ الْغَنَوِيَّةِ رواه الترمذي

“Whoever acquires wealth has no Zakaah to pay on it until a year passes on it”. This narration is documented in at-Tirmithee as reported by Allah’s Apostle; which is claimed as their supporting evidence.

This is narrated via Abdur Rahman Bin Syed Bin Assam who is classified as unreliable by Imam Tirmithee. He further adds that many Scholars including Hambal and Ali Bin Mathyani have classified him as unreliable.

أخبرنا علي بن محمد بن بشران ومحمد بن الحسين بن الفضل القطان ببغداد قالا أنبأ أبو عمرو عثمان بن أحمد بن السماك ثنا محمد بن عبيد الله بن أبي داود ثنا أبو بدر شجاع بن الوليد ثنا حارثة بن محمد عن عمرة عن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت سمعت رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  يقول لا زكاة في مال حتى يحول عليه الحول وكذلك رواه أبو معاوية وهريم بن سفيان وأبو كدينة عن حارثة مرفوعا ورواه الثوري عن حارثة موقوفا على عائشة وحارثة لا يحتج بخبره والاعتماد في ذلك على الآثار الصحيحة فيه عن أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه وعثمان بن عفان وعبد الله بن عمر وغيرهم رضي الله عنهم سنن البيهقي الكبرى ج4/ص95

حدثنا أبو طلحة أحمد بن محمد بن عبد الكريم ثنا نصر بن علي ثنا شجاع بن الوليد عن حارثة بن محمد ح وحدثنا إبراهيم بن دبيس بن أحمد الحداد ثنا محمد بن عبيد الله بن المنادي ثنا أبو بدر ثنا حارثة ح وحدثنا أحمد بن كامل ثنا محمد بن سعد العوفي ثنا أبو بدر نا حارثة ح وحدثنا علي بن عبد الله بن مبشر ثنا علي بن أحمد الجواربي ثنا إسحاق بن منصور حدثنا هريم عن حارثة عن عمرة عن عائشة قالت قال رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  ليس في المال زكاة حتى يحول عليه الحول قال نصر لا زكاة في مال وقال الباقون ليس في المال زكاة سنن الدارقطني ج2/ص90  

Further, similar narrations are documented in Ibn Maaja, Al-Bayhaqee 4/95 and Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/90.

Harisa Bin Muhammad is linked in the narrators’ chain. Imam Al-Bayhaqee remarks that his narrations are unreliable.

Since this Narration is also inauthentic, the claim based on this is no more valid.

 حدثنا الحسن بن الخضر المعدل بمكة حدثنا إسحاق بن إبراهيم بن يونس ثنا محمد بن سليمان الأسدي ثنا حسان بن سياه عن ثابت عن أنس أن رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم  قال ليس في مال زكاة حتى يحول عليه الحول سنن الدارقطني ج2/ص91  

Further, similar narration is documented in Sunan ad-Daarqutnee 2/91. Hassan Bin Siyah is linked to the narrators’ chain. He is also unreliable.

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ النُّفَيْلِيُّ حَدَّثَنَا زُهَيْرٌ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو إِسْحَقَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ ضَمْرَةَ وَعَنْ الْحَارِثِ الْأَعْوَرِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ زُهَيْرٌ أَحْسَبُهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَنَّه قَالَ هَاتُوا رُبْعَ الْعُشُورِ مِنْ كُلِّ أَرْبَعِينَ دِرْهَمًا دِرْهَمٌ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ شَيْءٌ حَتَّى تَتِمَّ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ فَإِذَا كَانَتْ مِائَتَيْ دِرْهَمٍ فَفِيهَا خَمْسَةُ دَرَاهِمَ فَمَا زَادَ فَعَلَى حِسَابِ ذَلِكَ وَفِي الْغَنَمِ فِي أَرْبَعِينَ شَاةً شَاةٌ فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ إِلَّا تِسْعٌ وَثَلَاثُونَ فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ فِيهَا شَيْءٌ وَسَاقَ صَدَقَةَ الْغَنَمِ مِثْلَ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ وَفِي الْبَقَرِ فِي كُلِّ ثَلَاثِينَ تَبِيعٌ وَفِي الْأَرْبَعِينَ مُسِنَّةٌ وَلَيْسَ عَلَى الْعَوَامِلِ شَيْءٌ وَفِي الْإِبِلِ فَذَكَرَ صَدَقَتَهَا كَمَا ذَكَرَ الزُّهْرِيُّ قَالَ وَفِي خَمْسٍ وَعِشْرِينَ خَمْسَةٌ مِنْ الْغَنَمِ فَإِذَا زَادَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَفِيهَا ابْنَةُ مَخَاضٍ فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ بِنْتُ مَخَاضٍ فَابْنُ لَبُونٍ ذَكَرٌ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَثَلَاثِينَ فَإِذَا زَادَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَفِيهَا بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ إِلَى خَمْسٍ وَأَرْبَعِينَ فَإِذَا زَادَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَفِيهَا حِقَّةٌ طَرُوقَةُ الْجَمَلِ إِلَى سِتِّينَ ثُمَّ سَاقَ مِثْلَ حَدِيثِ الزُّهْرِيِّ قَالَ فَإِذَا زَادَتْ وَاحِدَةً يَعْنِي وَاحِدَةً وَتِسْعِينَ فَفِيهَا حِقَّتَانِ طَرُوقَتَا الْجَمَلِ إِلَى عِشْرِينَ وَمِائَةٍ فَإِنْ كَانَتْ الْإِبِلُ أَكْثَرُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَفِي كُلِّ خَمْسِينَ حِقَّةٌ وَلَا يُفَرَّقُ بَيْنَ مُجْتَمِعٍ وَلَا يُجْمَعُ بَيْنَ مُفْتَرِقٍ خَشْيَةَ الصَّدَقَةِ وَلَا تُؤْخَذُ فِي الصَّدَقَةِ هَرِمَةٌ وَلَا ذَاتُ عَوَارٍ وَلَا تَيْسٌ إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ الْمُصَدِّقُ وَفِي النَّبَاتِ مَا سَقَتْهُ الْأَنْهَارُ أَوْ سَقَتْ السَّمَاءُ الْعُشْرُ وَمَا سَقَى الْغَرْبُ فَفِيهِ نِصْفُ الْعُشْرِ وَفِي حَدِيثِ عَاصِمٍ وَالْحَارِثِ الصَّدَقَةُ فِي كُلِّ عَامٍ قَالَ زُهَيْرٌ أَحْسَبُهُ قَالَ مَرَّةً وَفِي حَدِيثِ عَاصِمٍ إِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ فِي الْإِبِلِ ابْنَةُ مَخَاضٍ وَلَا ابْنُ لَبُونٍ فَعَشَرَةُ دَرَاهِمَ أَوْ شَاتَانِ حَدَّثَنَا سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ دَاوُدَ الْمَهْرِيُّ أَخْبَرَنَا ابْنُ وَهْبٍ أَخْبَرَنِي جَرِيرُ بْنُ حَازِمٍ وَسَمَّى آخَرَ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَقَ عَنْ عَاصِمِ بْنِ ضَمْرَةَ وَالْحَارِثِ الْأَعْوَرِ عَنْ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بِبَعْضِ أَوَّلِ هَذَا الْحَدِيثِ قَالَ فَإِذَا كَانَتْ لَكَ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا خَمْسَةُ دَرَاهِمَ وَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ شَيْءٌ يَعْنِي فِي الذَّهَبِ حَتَّى يَكُونَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَارًا فَإِذَا كَانَ لَكَ عِشْرُونَ دِينَارًا وَحَالَ عَلَيْهَا الْحَوْلُ فَفِيهَا نِصْفُ دِينَارٍ فَمَا زَادَ فَبِحِسَابِ ذَلِكَ قَالَ فَلَا أَدْرِي أَعَلِيٌّ يَقُولُ فَبِحِسَابِ ذَلِكَ أَوْ رَفَعَهُ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَلَيْسَ فِي مَالٍ زَكَاةٌ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ إِلَّا أَنَّ جَرِيرًا قَالَ ابْنُ وَهْبٍ يَزِيدُ فِي الْحَدِيثِ عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَيْسَ فِي مَالٍ زَكَاةٌ حَتَّى يَحُولَ عَلَيْهِ الْحَوْلُ رواه ابوداود

Apart from this, it is also documented in Abu Dawud 4/95 and Al-Bayhaqee 4/137. Naseerudheen Albani certifies this as authentic based on the reliability of its narrators. Shaykh al-Albaanee failed to note another deficiency in this.

Hence, we are bound to explain this in detail. The narrators’ chain is as follows.

1. Ali (May Allah be pleased with them).

2. Haris Al A’war – Aasim Bin Lamura.

3. Abu Is'haq.

4. Suhair.

5. Abdullah Bin Muhammad.

That is, Abdullah Bin Muhammad quotes that he hears from Suhair.

Suhair quotes that Abu Is'haq narrated him.

Abu Is’haq reports that Aasim and Haris narrated him.

Both, Aasim and Haris quotes that Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) narrated them.

Though Haris is a great liar, another narrator Aasim Bin Lamura is reliable. Thus, the chain of narrators is perfect with reference to this and hence Shaykh al-Albaanee remarks it as Authentic.

But, It is not mentioned in this narration if Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) told himself or was it quoted by Allah’s Apostle?

Suhair quotes that he assumed that Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) would have reported from Allah’s Apostle. This phrase is in the beginning of this narration.

Suhair; who has not met Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) quotes that Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) would have reported Allah’s Apostle’s message based on his hypothesis.

It should not be assumed based on hypothesis that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)quoted this. Had this been told by Allah’s Apostle, Ali (May Allah be pleased with them) should have mentioned this clearly.

But, since Suhair hypothetically quotes, it cannot be considered as Allah’s’ Apostles’ Narration.

Hence, though the narrators are reliable, this is the self view of Ali (May Allah be pleased with them). Hence none of the decisions can be made with reference to this.

2.3.1 Every Year

People insisting Zakaah on wealth even if Zakaah has been previously paid indicate one more narration in support.

‘Abdullaah Ibn Mu‘aawiyah al-Ghaadiree quoted Allaah’s Messenger (r) as saying, “He who performs three things will have the taste of faith: One who worships Allah alone; one believes that there is no god but Allah; and one who pays Zakaah every year on his property…

            Sunan Abu Dawud, vol. 2, p. 413, no. 1577

Similar narration is quoted in Al-Bayhaqee 4/95, At-Tabaraanee and Sakeer.

They refer them as most-authentic. But all the three narrations are in authentic.

2.3.1.1 Narration of Al-Bayhaqee

وأخبرنا أبو الحسين بن الفضل القطان ببغداد (حمزة بن احمد بن مخلد) أنبأ عبد الله بن جعفر بن درستويه ثنا يعقوب بن سفيان ثنا إسحاق بن إبراهيم (بن العلاء بن الضحاك الزبيدي المعروف بزبريق) حدثني عمرو بن الحارث (الزبيدي الحمصي) حدثني عبد الله بن سالم عن الزبيدي قال حدثني يحيى بن جابر أن عبد الرحمن بن جبير حدثه أن أباه حدثه أن عبد الله بن معاوية الغاضري حدثهم أن رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ثلاث من فعلهن فقد طعم   طعم الإيمان  من عبد الله وحده فإنه لا إله إلا الله وأعطى زكاة ماله طيبة بها نفسه رافدة عليه في كل عام ولم يعط الهرمة ولا الدرنة ولا الشرط اللائمة ولا المريضة ولكن من أوسط أموالكم فإن الله عز وجل لم يسألكم خيره ولم يأمركم بشره وزكى عبد نفسه فقال رجل ما تزكية المرء نفسه يا رسول الله قال يعلم أن الله معه حيث ما كان وقال غيره ولا الشرط اللئيمة سنن البيهقي الكبرى ج: 4 ص: 95

                      Al-Bayhaqee 4/95

Is’haq Bin Ibrahim is linked to the narrators’ chain.

 بخ البخاري في الأدب المفرد إسحاق بن إبراهيم بن العلاء بن الضحاك بن المهاجر أبو يعقوب الحمصي الزبيدي المعروف بابن زبريق روى عن عمرو بن الحارث الحمصي وبقية بن الوليد وأبي مسهر وغيرهم روى عنه البخاري في الأدب ونسبه إلى جده وأبو حاتم والذهلي ويعقوب الفسوي وعثمان بن سعيد الدارمي وأبو إسماعيل الترمذي ويحيى بن عمرو بن المصري وجماعة قال أبو حاتم شيخ لا بأس به ولكنهم يحسدونه سمعت يحيى بن معين أثنى عليه خيرا وقال النسائي ليس بثقة وقال بن يونس عن بن رازح عن عمارة بن وثيمة توفي بمصر لثمان بقين من رمضان سنة 238 قلت وعلق البخاري في قيام الليل حديثا للزبيدي هو من رواية إسحاق هذا عن عمرو بن الحارث الحمصي وصله الطبراني وغيره وروى الآجري عن أبي داود أن محمد بن عون قال ما أشك أن إسحاق بن زبريق يكذب وذكره بن حبان في الثقات - تهذيب التهذيب ج 1 /ص 189  

Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 1/189

Though Ibn Mayeen appreciates him, Imam Nasayee remarks him as unreliable narrator. Muhammad Bin Awan quotes undoubtedly that he is a Liar.

Though some certify Ishac bin Ibrahim as Reliable, since there are clear indications that he is a Liar, based on actual criteria specified in Science of Hadhees (in which it is axiomed that criticism would overwhelm appreciation), he is to be assumed as unreliable.

Amr Bin Haris is also linked to this narration

بخ د البخاري في الأدب المفرد وأبي داود عمرو بن الحارث بن الضحاك الزبيدي الحمصي عداده في الكلاعيين روى عن عبد الله بن سالم الأشعري وعنه إسحاق بن إبراهيم بن العلاء بن زبريق ومولاته علوة ذكره بن حبان في الثقات قلت تقدم في ترجمة إسحاق بن إبراهيم الراوي عنه شيء يتعلق بتعاليق البخاري وقال الذهبي لا تعرف عدالته - تهذيب التهذيب ج 8 /ص 13  

       Thahdheebuth Thahdheeb 8/13

Facts about him are unknown. Imam Thabahi quotes that his honesty is not justified.

Anonymity over his Honesty further weakens the authenticity of this narration.

2.3.1.2 Narration of Thabarani

حدثنا علي بن الحسن بن معروف الحمصي حدثنا أبو تقي عبد الحميد بن إبراهيم حدثنا عبد الله بن سالم بن محمد بن الوليد الزبيدي حدثنا يحيى بن جابر الطائي أن عبد الرحمن بن جبير بن نفير حدثه أن أباه حدثه أن عبد الله بن معاوية الغاضري رضي الله عنه حدثهم أن رسول الله  صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ثلاث من فعلهن فقد ذاق   طعم الإيمان  من عبد الله عز وجل وحده بأنه لا إله ألا هو وأعطى زكاة ماله طيبة بها نفسه في كل عام ولم يعط الهرمة ولا الدرنة ولا المريضة ولكن من أوسط أموالكم فإن الله عز وجل لم يسألكم خيرها ولم يأمركم بشرها وزكى نفسه فقال رجل وما تزكية النفس فقال أن يعلم أن الله عز وجل معه حيث كان لا يروى هذا الحديث عن بن معاوية إلا بهذا الإسناد ولا نعرف لعبد الله بن معاوية الغاضري حديثا مسندا غير هذا المعجم الصغير ج: 1 ص: 334  

The narration documented by At-Tabaraanee in his book Sakeer is also in authentic.

Abudhaki Abdul Hameed Bin Ibrahim is linked to this narrators’ chain.

عبد الحميد بن إبراهيم الحضرمي الحمصي أبو تقى ... قال سألت محمد بن عوف الحمصي عنه فقال كان شيخا ضريرا لا يحفظ وكنا نكتب من نسخه لذى كان عند إسحاق بن زبريق لابن سالم فنحمله اليه ونلقنه فكان لا يحفظ الإسناد ويحفظ بعض المتن فيحدثنا وانما حملنا الكتاب عنه شهوة الحديث  الجرح والتعديل ج 6 /ص 8  

Abu Haatham remarked him as blind and aged. And that he was with poor memory and added that he is not reliable and cannot be taken into account. (Refer Al-Jarah Waddhathil Part 6, Page no: 8)

Some scholars quote that this is the most authentic of the three narrations. But Scholars of Hadhees Science have remarked Abudhaki Abdul Hameed as unreliable.

Hence, people quoting this Narration to justify their stand, should answer the criticism on the narrators and establish their facts.

We have clarified with appropriate reason that these narrations are inauthentic. There is no change in our decision until this is unauthentic.

2.3.1.3 Narration of Abu Dawud

قَالَ أَبُو دَاوُد وَقَرَأْتُ فِي كِتَابِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ سَالِمٍ بِحِمْصَ عِنْدَ آلِ عَمْرِو بْنِ الْحَارِثِ الْحِمْصِيِّ عَنْ الزُّبَيْدِيِّ قَالَ وَأَخْبَرَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ جَابِرٍ عَنْ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ نُفَيْرٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ الْغَاضِرِيِّ مِنْ غَاضِرَةِ قَيْسٍ قَالَ قَالَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ثَلَاثٌ مَنْ فَعَلَهُنَّ فَقَدْ طَعِمَ طَعْمَ الْإِيمَانِ مَنْ عَبَدَ اللَّهَ وَحْدَهُ وَأَنَّهُ لَا إِلَهَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَأَعْطَى زَكَاةَ مَالِهِ طَيِّبَةً بِهَا نَفْسُهُ رَافِدَةً عَلَيْهِ كُلَّ عَامٍ وَلَا يُعْطِي الْهَرِمَةَ وَلَا الدَّرِنَةَ وَلَا الْمَرِيضَةَ وَلَا الشَّرَطَ اللَّئِيمَةَ وَلَكِنْ مِنْ وَسَطِ أَمْوَالِكُمْ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ لَمْ يَسْأَلْكُمْ خَيْرَهُ وَلَمْ يَأْمُرْكُمْ بِشَرِّهِ  رواه ابوداود  

2.3.1.4 Narration of Abu Dawud also has two deficiencies

Imam Munthiri has cited it as Broken with respect to narrators’ chain. Abu Dawud did not reveal the person from whom he heard. He further says that he comprehended from Abdullah Bin Salami’s book from Amr Bin Harris’s family.

Abu Dawud quotes that he did not read the book from Abdullah Bin Saalim but comprehended from Amr Bin Harris’s family.

Whom does family refers to? And, what about their reliability? There is no indication if they would show some ones’ book as Abdullah Bin Salami’s.

Family would refer to Mother, Father, Brothers, Wife or Children. Since the reliability and identity (of who the family member was) is unrevealed, this is inauthentic.

Further, in order to refer Amr Bin Haris’ family, it is already discussed that even Amr bin Harris’s reliability remains unjustified.

Abu Dawud’s statement that reading from the book -which the family members of an unreliable person possessed itself is clear enough for its in authenticity.

Apart from this, ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mu‘aawiyah al-Ghaadiree is reported as narrating from Allah’s Apostle.

Though he is remarked as Companion in some books, his criterion is not matching the one benchmarked for Companions’ of Prophet.

If he is to be assumed as Companion of Allah’s Apostle, it should be commonly known. But, there are no details about him apart from his name appearing in this Narration.

He should have used reported stating “I heard from Allah’s Apostle” but in this narration he stated “Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)told”. He is not proven to be a Companion even based on this benchmark.

Otherwise, at least one Companion or Tabiyee should have certified him as Companion. No one certified him as well

This acid test of determining one as Companion is mentioned in Thatreeb 2/672.

It is still a mystery why he is referred to as Companion in some books though he did not pass this acid test.

They establish their claim with these inauthentic narrations.

People insisting Zakaah for the wealth for which Zakaah has been previously paid failed to present any evidence.

When everything is void, they try to quote irrelevant narrations and justify their stand with their hypothesis.

2.4 Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with them)’s Rule

During the rule of Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with them), when some refused to pay Zakaah, he stated “I would fight with them even if they with-hold a she kid”

Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakaah)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 24 :: Hadith 536

Narrated Abu Huraira:

Abu Bakr said, "By Allah! If they (pay me the Zakaah and) with-hold even a she-kid which they used to pay during the life-time of Allah's Apostle, I will fight with them for it."

Dealing with Apostates

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 84 :: Hadith 59

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When the Prophet died and Abu Bakr became his successor and some of the Arabs reverted to disbelief, 'Umar said, "O Abu Bakr! How can you fight these people although Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)said, 'I have been ordered to fight the people till they say: 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, 'and whoever said, 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah', Allah will save his property and his life from me, unless (he does something for which he receives legal punishment) justly, and his account will be with Allah?' "Abu Bakr said, "By Allah! I will fight whoever differentiates between prayers and Zakaah as Zakaah is the right to be taken from property (according to Allah's Orders). By Allah! If they refused to pay me even a kid they used to pay to Allah's Apostle, I would fight with them for withholding it." 'Umar said, "By Allah: It was nothing, but I noticed that Allah opened Abu Bakr's chest towards the decision to fight, therefore I realized that his decision was right.

Holding Fast to the Qur'an and Sunnah

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 92 :: Hadith 388

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)died and Abu Bakr was elected as a Caliph after him, some of the Arabs reverted to disbelief, 'Umar said to Abu Bakr, "How dare you fight the people while Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)said, I have been ordered to fight the people till they say 'None has the right to be worshipped but Allah' And whoever says: None has the right to be worshipped but Allah.' waves his wealth and his life from me unless he deserves a legal punishment lusty, and his account will be with Allah! Abu Bakr said, "By Allah, I will fight him who discriminates between Zakaah and prayers, for Zakaah is the Compulsory right to be taken from the wealth By Allah, if they refuse to give me even a tying rope which they use to give to Allah's Apostle, I would fight them for withholding it." 'Umar said, 'By Allah, It was nothing, except I saw that Allah had opened the chest of Abu Bakr to the fight, and I came to know for certain that was the truth."

Funerals (Al-Janaa'iz)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 23 :: Hadith 483

Narrated Abu Huraira:

When Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)died and Abu Bakr became the caliph some Arabs renegade (reverted to disbelief) (Abu Bakr decided to declare war against them), 'Umar, said to Abu Bakr, "How can you fight with these people although Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)said, 'I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight the people till they say: "None has the right to be worshipped but Allah, and whoever said it then he will save his life and property from me except on trespassing the law (rights and conditions for which he will be punished justly), and his accounts will be with Allah.' " Abu Bakr said, "By Allah! I will fight those who differentiate between the prayer and the Zakaah as Zakaah is the compulsory right to be taken from the property (according to Allah's orders) By Allah! If they refuse to pay me even a she-kid which they used to pay at the time of Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him). I would fight with them for withholding it" Then 'Umar said, "By Allah, it was nothing, but Allah opened Abu Bakr's chest towards the decision (to fight) and I came to know that his decision was right."  

This narration is also quoted to justify their stand. Though this is an authentic narration, this does not serve the purpose.

The phrase “they used to pay during the life-time of Allah's Apostle” implies continuous payment. They argue that “If it was given only once, would Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with them) have mentioned used to pay”.

This indicates the peak of their ignorance.

It is true that people used to pay continuously. Only if Zakaah is insisted as once for a Person, it would not be continuous.

As per our claim, if Zakaah is decided as once for a thing, it could also be paid continuously.

If Zakaah is paid for a goat today, it could multiply and Zakaah could be paid for multiplied goats could further multiply. This would necessitate payment of Zakaah again. Even if Zakaah is paid once, when wealth multiplies, it would lead to the payment of Zakaah continuously.

Further, if their argument is viewed, they deny only our view and do not establish their stand because continuous could not only refer to yearly, it could be monthly as well or even as weekly or daily.

Hence, they are bound to clarify how they themselves inserted “yearly” into the explanation of this Narration.

2.5 Zakaah for Cattle

After deciding upon an issue without proper grounds, they present Narrations irrelevant to the context to justify their stand.

In the similar category, they curve another narration pertaining to Cattles as per their wish.

If one owns 40 to 120 Goats, its Zakaah is 1 Goat. And if he has 121 to 200 Goats, then 2 is obligatory. And similarly 3 for the range 201 to 300 and likewise for every 100 goats more than 300, 1 becomes obligatory.

They use the narrations with this context as their evidence.

Let’s first see how they use this to establish their claim.

They impose couple of questions with reference to the narration.

Q1: If one owns 40 Goats and for which one Goat is paid as Zakaah. After some days if he acquires another 40 Goats, then as per our claim, are we supposed to give 1 more goat as Zakaah for this 40. And won’t it be in contrary to the axiom of 1 goat per 120?

Q2: If we say that it is not required for the next 40, then as per our claim only the first 40 is purified and how could the second slot be purified?

This is as a result of ignorance over our statement.

If one gives Zakaah when holding 40 goats, Zakaah is not just for 40 goats it is for 120 goats and hence he is not obliged to pay Zakaah for 120 goats.

When only 1 Goat is paid as Zakaah, it doesn’t cross the limit of 1 for 120. Similarly if Zakaah is paid upto 120 goats, the additional 40 goats also become pure. This is our answer.

Moreover, it is also quoted in the Narration as one per every 100. They also curve this and fit their justification.

They also ask if one has 300 goats and 3 goats are paid for that and that if he acquires 100 more, what should he do? The Narration is made realistic if 1 goat is given for the additional 100 goats.

There is no room of evidence for their claim. Our prime question is “How do they establish their claim of paying yearly, year after year from this Narration?”

We quoted the intention of “Zakaah to purify wealth” as only supportive information. But the people bound to justify their stand forget that there is no room of evidence in this narration for their claim.

It is to be noted that instead of People justifying their stand (of paying Zakaah on the same wealth yearly for which Zakaah has been previously paid) only try to deny to our supporting information.

We discussed with relevant evidences that there are no authentic narrations insisting the obligation of Zakaah on the same wealth yearly for which Zakaah has previously been paid.

Unable to deny this, people in contrary principle argue that though there are no evidences in Narrations of Allah’s Apostles, point to some statements and practice of Companions (or of Leading Scholars of the Salaf) for paying Zakaah on the Wealth yearly for which Zakaah is previously been paid.

3.0 COMPANIONS- Should one follow their Guidance?

 

The elementary belief of a Muslim is to follow only Wahi. Even the self analysis of Rasool SAW need not be considered as Dheen. People change this fundamental testimony of Islam by insisting to follow Companions’ views.

 

Affirming Honey as Haram and refuting Crossbreed-Date cultivation without Wahi are few examples.

 

When Prophet SAW himself clearly disengaged his words and deeds between Wahi and non-Wahi, it surprises when few people dispute that it is obligatory in Islam to follow Companions’ views.

 

ٱتَّبِعُواْ مَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيۡكُم مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ مِن دُونِهِۦۤ أَوۡلِيَآءَ‌ۗ قَلِيلاً۬ مَّا تَذَكَّرُونَ

 

Follow, [O mankind], what has been revealed to you from your Lord and do not follow other than Him any allies. Little do you remember!

                                                                                    Surah: 7.Al-A'raf: Verse: 3

 

قُلۡنَا ٱهۡبِطُواْ مِنۡہَا جَمِيعً۬ا‌ۖ فَإِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدً۬ى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ

 

We said, "Go down from it, all of you. And when guidance comes to you from Me, whoever follows My guidance - there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.

                                                                                    Surah: 2.Al-Baqarah: Verse: 38

 

ٱتَّبِعۡ مَآ أُوحِىَ إِلَيۡكَ مِن رَّبِّكَ‌ۖ لَآ إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ‌ۖ وَأَعۡرِضۡ عَنِ ٱلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ

 

Follow, [O Muhammad], what has been revealed to you from your Lord - there is no deity except Him - and turn away from those who associate others with Allah.

                                                                                    Surah: 6.Al-An'am: Verse: 106

 

إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوۡلَ ٱلۡمُؤۡمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوٓاْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِۦ لِيَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَهُمۡ أَن يَقُولُواْ سَمِعۡنَا وَأَطَعۡنَا‌ۚ وَأُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ هُمُ ٱلۡمُفۡلِحُونَ

The only statement of the [true] believers when they are called to Allah and His Messenger to judge between them is that they say, "We hear and we obey." And those are the successful.                                                                      

Surah: 24.An-Nur: Verse: 51.

 

قُلۡ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ‌ۖ فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاْ فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيۡهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيۡڪُم مَّا حُمِّلۡتُمۡ‌ۖ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهۡتَدُواْ‌ۚ وَمَا عَلَى ٱلرَّسُولِ إِلَّا ٱلۡبَلَـٰغُ ٱلۡمُبِينُ 

Say, "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away - then upon him is only that [duty] with which he has been charged, and upon you is that with which you have been charged. And if you obey him, you will be [rightly] guided. And there is not upon the Messenger except the [responsibility for] clear notification." 

                                                                                    Surah: 24.An-Nur: Verse: 54

 

قُلۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُحِبُّونَ ٱللَّهَ فَٱتَّبِعُونِى يُحۡبِبۡكُمُ ٱللَّهُ وَيَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ ذُنُوبَكُمۡ‌ۗ وَٱللَّهُ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

Say, [O Muhammad], "If you should love Allah, then follow me, [so] Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Forgiving and Merciful." 

                                                                                    Surah: 3.Al-’Imran: Verse: 31

 

وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ وَلَا تَنَـٰزَعُواْ فَتَفۡشَلُواْ وَتَذۡهَبَ رِيحُكُمۡ‌ۖ وَٱصۡبِرُوٓاْ‌ۚ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَ ٱلصَّـٰبِرِينَ 

And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute and [thus] lose courage and [then] your strength would depart; and be patient. Indeed, Allah is with the patient.

                                                                                    Surah:8.Al-Anfal : Verse : 46

 

وَأَنَّ هَـٰذَا صِرَٲطِى مُسۡتَقِيمً۬ا فَٱتَّبِعُوهُ‌ۖ وَلَا تَتَّبِعُواْ ٱلسُّبُلَ فَتَفَرَّقَ بِكُمۡ عَن سَبِيلِهِۦ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكُمۡ وَصَّٮٰكُم بِهِۦ لَعَلَّڪُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ

 

And, [moreover], this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from His way. This has He instructed you that you may become righteous.

                                                                                    Surah: 6.Al-An’am: Verse: 153

 

 

يَـٰٓأَيُّہَا ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوٓاْ أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلۡأَمۡرِ مِنكُمۡ‌ۖ فَإِن تَنَـٰزَعۡتُمۡ فِى شَىۡءٍ۬ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ وَٱلرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمۡ تُؤۡمِنُونَ بِٱللَّهِ وَٱلۡيَوۡمِ ٱلۡأَخِرِ‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ خَيۡرٌ۬ وَأَحۡسَنُ تَأۡوِيلاً

 

O you, who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result.

                                                                                    Surah: 4.An-Nisa’: Verse: 59

 

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤۡمِنٍ۬ وَلَا مُؤۡمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى ٱللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ۥۤ أَمۡرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ ٱلۡخِيَرَةُ مِنۡ أَمۡرِهِمۡۗ وَمَن يَعۡصِ ٱللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۥ فَقَدۡ ضَلَّ ضَلَـٰلاً۬ مُّبِينً۬ا  

 

It is not for a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His Messenger have decided a matter, that they should [thereafter] have any choice about their affair. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger has certainly strayed into clear error. 

                                                                                    Surah: 33.Al-Ahzab: Verse: 36

 

وَٱخۡشَوۡنِ‌ۚ ٱلۡيَوۡمَ أَكۡمَلۡتُ لَكُمۡ دِينَكُمۡ وَأَتۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِى وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ ٱلۡإِسۡلَـٰمَ دِينً۬ا‌ۚ فَمَنِ ٱضۡطُرَّ فِى مَخۡمَصَةٍ غَيۡرَ مُتَجَانِفٍ۬ لِّإٍِ۬ثۡمٍ۬‌ۙ فَإِنَّ ٱللَّهَ غَفُورٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

 

Fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you, and have chosen for you as religion AL-ISLAM. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

                                                                                    Surah: 5.Al-Maeda: Verse: 3

 

All these verses evidently claim to Follow Only Wahi: Quran and Sunnah of Prophet SAW.

 

When we clarify this, People think that we do not respect Companions of Prophet and yell them.

 

There is no second thought on the Companions’ Excellence, being superior to us in belief which is iterated in lot of Quran verses and Hadhees.

 

Bukhari :: Book 5 :: Volume 57 :: Hadith 22

Narrated Abu Said:

The Prophet said, "Do not abuse my companions for if any one of you spent gold equal to Uhud (in Allah's Cause) it would not be equal to a Mud or even a half Mud spent by one of them."

Bukhari :: Book 5 :: Volume 57 :: Hadith 2

 

Narrated Imran bin Husain:

"Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) said, 'The best of my followers are those living in my generation (i.e. my contemporaries). and then those who will follow the latter"

Allah has also praised Companions of Prophet in His Holy Quran:

 

وَٱلسَّـٰبِقُونَ ٱلۡأَوَّلُونَ مِنَ ٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ وَٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَـٰنٍ۬ رَّضِىَ ٱللَّهُ عَنۡہُمۡ وَرَضُواْ عَنۡهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـٰتٍ۬ تَجۡرِى تَحۡتَهَا ٱلۡأَنۡهَـٰرُ خَـٰلِدِينَ فِيہَآ أَبَدً۬ا‌ۚ ذَٲلِكَ ٱلۡفَوۡزُ ٱلۡعَظِيمُ

 

And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever. That is the great attainment.

                                                                                    Surah: 9.At-Taubah: Verse: 100

 

 

لَّقَد تَّابَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَى ٱلنَّبِىِّ وَٱلۡمُهَـٰجِرِينَ وَٱلۡأَنصَارِ ٱلَّذِينَ ٱتَّبَعُوهُ فِى سَاعَةِ ٱلۡعُسۡرَةِ مِنۢ بَعۡدِ مَا ڪَادَ يَزِيغُ قُلُوبُ فَرِيقٍ۬ مِّنۡهُمۡ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ‌ۚ إِنَّهُ ۥ بِهِمۡ رَءُوفٌ۬ رَّحِيمٌ۬

 

Allah has already forgiven the Prophet and the Muhajireen and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of difficulty after the hearts of a party of them had almost inclined [to doubt], and then He forgave them. Indeed, He was to them Kind and Merciful. 

                                                                                    Surah: 9.At-Taubah: Verse: 117

 

 

وَمَا لَكُمۡ أَلَّا تُنفِقُواْ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ وَلِلَّهِ مِيرَٲثُ ٱلسَّمَـٰوَٲتِ وَٱلۡأَرۡضِ‌ۚ لَا يَسۡتَوِى مِنكُم مَّنۡ أَنفَقَ مِن قَبۡلِ ٱلۡفَتۡحِ وَقَـٰتَلَ‌ۚ أُوْلَـٰٓٮِٕكَ أَعۡظَمُ دَرَجَةً۬ مِّنَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنفَقُواْ مِنۢ بَعۡدُ وَقَـٰتَلُواْ‌ۚ وَكُلاًّ۬ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلۡحُسۡنَىٰ‌ۚ وَٱللَّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ۬

 

 

And why do you not spend in the cause of Allah while to Allah belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth? Not equal among you are those who spent before the conquest [of Makah] and fought [and those who did so after it]. Those are greater in degree than they who spent afterwards and fought. But to all Allah has promised the best [reward]. And Allah, with what you do, is Acquainted.

                                                                                    Surah: 57.Al-Hadid: Verse: 10

 

 

We never refuted these Excellencies of Companions of Prophet. Also, we never stopped from identifying the Shias and its supporters, who try to testify the Excellencies of Companions of Prophet.

 

But at the same time, Inspite of possessing such Excellencies, it is not acceptable to make the opinion of Companions’ as Dheen. Only Quran and Hadhees are the attestation of Dheen. Though Companions are Excellent, they are not an exception to human nature. They would also have liability.

 

We do not say this out of Imagination:

 

Ø      Few of their views and conduct were contrary to Quran and Hadhees.

Ø      They were ignorant of few Authentic Hadhees.

Ø      Have shaped few things which were not in Quran and Hadhees.

 

There are lots of instances in support of this. Hence, we insist not to attest anything else apart from Quran and Hadhees.

 

The fact is that Companions of Prophet have enlightened not one or two but many decisions against Quran and Hadhees.

3.1 Hajj-at-Tamattu'

 

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 26 :: Hadith 634

Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam:

I saw 'Uthman and 'Ali. 'Uthman used to forbid people to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Hajj-al-Qiran (Hajj and 'Umra together), and when 'Ali saw (this act of 'Uthman), he assumed Ihram for Hajj and 'Umra together saying, "Lubbaik for 'Umra and Hajj," and said, "I will not leave the tradition of the Prophet on the saying of somebody."

A person from Syria asked Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) about completing Umrah during Hajj month and tying ihram separately, for that he said “That’s permitted”. Syrian told “your father has banned this”. Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) replied “If my Father banned which was practiced by Apostle of Allah, should my Father’s order be executed? (Or) Apostle of Allah’s? The Syrian replied “Apostle of Allah’s order should only be executed. Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) answered Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) has done it that way.

(Refer: Sunan at-Tirmithhee 753, Narrated by Salim)

Even today everyone accepts Hajj-at-Tamattu’ including those who insist to follow Companions of Prophet. But Great Companions like Umar(May Allah be pleased with them) and ‘Utman(May Allah be pleased with them) were unaware of this. Why?

3.2 Bathing (Ghusl)

 

Bukhari :: Book 1 :: Volume 5 :: Hadith 292

 

Narrated Ubai bin Ka'b:

I asked Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)about a man who engages in sexual intercourse with his wife but does not discharge. He replied, "He should wash the parts which comes in contact with the private parts of the woman, perform ablution and then pray." (Abu 'Abdullah said, "Taking a bath is safer and is the last order.")

If the Sperm doesn’t discharge after Intercourse, Bathing is not necessary:  this was Allah’s Apostle’s initial ruling but later he changed this verdict.

Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) said “If Man’s private part enter Women’s, Ghusl (Bathing) is obligatory.

Narrated by: Aisha (May Allah be pleased with them)                                                          Books: Muslim 526, Sunan at-Tirmithhee

Such modified rulings are well known to everyone including those who insist to follow Companions. But, ‘Utman (May Allah be pleased with them) has told that Ghusl is not obligatory if Sperm doesn’t discharge.

Bukhari :: Book 1 :: Volume 5 :: Hadith 291

Narrated Zaid bin Khalid AjJuhani:

I asked 'Uthman bin 'Affan about a man who engaged in the sexual intercourse with his wife but did not discharge. 'Uthman replied, "He should perform ablution like that for the prayer after washing his private parts."

Why was ‘Utman (May Allah be pleased with them) unaware of this modified ruling?

 

3.3 Rubbing hands and feet with dust (Tayammum)

 

Bukhari :: Book 1 :: Volume 7 :: Hadith 342

Narrated Shaqiq bin Salama:

I was with 'Abdullah and Abu Musa; the latter asked the former, "O Abu AbdurRahman! What is your opinion if somebody becomes Junub and no water is available?" 'Abdullah replied, "Do not pray till water is found." Abu Musa said, "What do you say about the statement of 'Ammar (who was ordered by the Prophet to perform Tayammum). The Prophet said to him: "Perform Tayammum and that would be sufficient." 'Abdullah replied, "Don't you see that 'Umar was not satisfied by 'Ammar's statement?" Abu- Musa said, "All right, leave 'Ammar's statement, but what will you say about this verse (of Tayammum)?" 'Abqiullah kept quiet and then said, "If we allowed it, then they would probably perform Tayammum even if water was available, if one of them found it (water) cold."

'Abdullah told not to pray with Tayammum though he was aware that when Ghusl is obligatory, due to lack of water, prayer can be performed with Tayammum,

Even when there is obvious consent in Quran to perform Tayammum incase of unavailability of water and irrespective of this verse of Tayammum from Quran being reminded to Abdullah, he rejected based on Personal analysis. What does this illustrate?

3.4 Plague      

 

Bukhari :: Book 7 :: Volume 71 :: Hadith 625

Narrated 'Abdullah bin 'Abbas:

'Umar bin Al-Khattab departed for Sham and when he reached Sargh, the commanders of the (Muslim) army, Abu 'Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah and his companions met him and told him that an epidemic had broken out in Sham. 'Umar said, "Call for me the early emigrants." So 'Umar called them, consulted them and informed them that an epidemic had broken out in Sham. Those people differed in their opinions. Some of them said, "We have come out for a purpose and we do not think that it is proper to give it up," while others said (to 'Umar), "You have along with you. other people and the companions of Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) so do not advise that we take them to this epidemic." 'Umar said to them, "Leave me now." Then he said, "Call the Ansar for me." I called them and he consulted them and they followed the way of the emigrants and differed as they did. He then said to them, Leave me now," and added, "Call for me the old people of Quraish who emigrated in the year of the Conquest of Mecca." I called them and they gave a unanimous opinion saying, "We advise that you should return with the people and do not take them to that (place) of epidemic." So 'Umar made an announcement, "I will ride back to Medina in the morning, so you should do the same." Abu 'Ubaida bin Al-Jarrah said (to 'Umar), "Are you running away from what Allah had ordained?" 'Umar said, "Would that someone else had said such a thing, O Abu 'Ubaida! Yes, we are running from what Allah had ordained to what Allah has ordained. Don't you agree that if you had camels that went down a valley having two places, one green and the other dry, you would graze them on the green one only if Allah had ordained that, and you would graze them on the dry one only if Allah had ordained that?" At that time 'Abdur-Rahman bin 'Auf, who had been absent because of some job, came and said, "I have some knowledge about this. I have heard Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) saying, 'If you hear about it (an outbreak of plague) in a land, do not go to it; but if plague breaks out in a country where you are staying, do not run away from it.' " 'Umar thanked Allah and returned to Medina.

Though it is evident about the Apostle’s message on Plague to everyone including those who insist to follow Companions, This Hadhees illustrates that Umar (May Allah be pleased with them), Majority of Muhajirs and Ansaris were ignorant in this subject.

 

3.5 Asking Permission

Bukhari :: Book 3 :: Volume 34:: Hadith 277

Narrated 'Ubai bin 'Umar:

Abu Musa asked Umar to admit him but he was not admitted as 'Umar was busy, so Abu Musa went back. When 'Umar finished his job he said, "Didn't I hear the voice of 'Abdullah bin Qais? Let him come in." 'Umar was told that he had left. So, he sent for him and on his arrival, he (Abu Musa) said, "We were ordered to do so (i.e. to leave if not admitted after asking permission thrice).’Umar told him, "Bring witness in proof of your statement." Abu Musa went to the Ansar's meeting places and asked them. They said, "None amongst us will give this witness except the youngest of us, Abu Said Al-Khudri. Abu Musa then took Abu Said Al-Khudri (to 'Umar) and 'Umar said, surprisingly, "Has this order of Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)been hidden from me?" (Then he added), "I used to be busy trading in markets."

Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) notified that being busy in Trading; he was unaware of the message of Allah’s Apostle. This illustrates the even Significant Companions were ignorant of the instructions of Apostle of Allah and the reason behind.

3.6 Death of Apostle of Allah

 

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 23 :: Hadith 333

Narrated ‘Aisha:

Abu Bakr came riding his horse from his dwelling place in As-Sunnah. He got down from it, entered the Mosque and did not speak with anybody till he came to me and went direct to the Prophet, who was covered with a marked blanket. Abu Bakr uncovered his face. He knelt down and kissed him and then started weeping and said, "My father and my mother be sacrificed for you, O Allah's Prophet! Allah will not combine two deaths on you. You have died the death which was written for you."

Narrated Abu Salama from Ibn Abbas:

Abu Bakr came out and ‘Umar, was addressing the people, and Abu Bakr told him to sit down but 'Umar refused. Abu Bakr again told him to sit down but 'Umar again refused. Then Abu Bakr recited the Tashah-hud (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and Muhammad is Allah's Apostle) and the people attended to Abu Bakr and left 'Umar. Abu Bakr said, "Amma ba'du, whoever amongst you worshipped Muhammad, then Muhammad is dead, but whoever worshipped Allah, Allah is alive and will never die. Allah said: 'Muhammad is no more than an Apostle and indeed (many) Apostles have passed away before him.(up to the) grateful.' " (3.144) (The narrator added, "By Allah, it was as if the people never knew that Allah had revealed this verse before till Abu Bakr recited it and then whoever heard it, started reciting it ")

Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) and many of the Companions even refused to accept death of Allah’s Apostle. This illustrates that Companions were ignorant of one matter in Quran. Companions understood the truth after Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with them) rectified. Several instances have occurred without rectification.

 

3.7 Three Divorces - Muttalaq

 

Muslim :: Book 9 : Hadith 3491

Ibn 'Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) reported that the (pronouncement) of three divorces during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and that of Abu Bakr and two years of the caliphate of Umar (Allah be pleased with him) (was treated) as one. But Umar b. Khattab (Allah be pleased with him) said: Verily the people have begun to hasten in the matter in which they are required to observe respite. So, if we had imposed this upon them, and he imposed it upon them.

Though Apostle of Allah clearly stated that pronouncement of three divorces was treated as one, knowingly Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) imposed it incorrectly.

More:

Ø      Earlier rule of prostrating in Ruku while in Prayer was to keep both the hands between the thighs. Later was changed to hold the knees. Ibn Masud (May Allah be pleased with them) was ignorant in this rule which was known to all Companions as well as one of the routine duties. He himself prostrated this way and also encouraged others to do the same. (Refer Muslim 831)

Muslim :: Book 4 : Hadith 1086

Al-Aswad and 'Alqama reported: We came to the house of 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud. He said: Have these people said prayer behind you? We said: No. He said: Then stand up and say prayer. He neither ordered us to say Adhan nor Iqama. We went to stand behind him. He caught hold of our hands and mode one of us stand on his right hand and the other on his left side. When we bowed, we placed our hands on our knees. He struck our hands and put his hands together, palm to palm, then put them between his thighs. When he completed the prayer he said. There would soon come your Amirs, who would defer prayers from their appointed time and would make such delay that a little time is left before sunset. So when you see them doing so, say prayer at its appointed time and then say prayer along with them as (Nafl), and when you are three, pray together (standing in one row), and when you are more than three, appoint one amongst you as your Imam. And when any one of you bows he must place his hands upon his thighs and kneel down. and putting his palms together place (them within his thighs). I perceive as if I am seeing the gap between the fingers of the Messenger of Allah (may peace he upon him).

Ø      Though Maimoona (May Allah be pleased with them) refuted that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) married her in the state of Ihram, Maimoona (May Allah be pleased with them)’s nephew (Sister’s Son) Ibn ‘Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) cited that they were married in the state of Ihram.

 

 

 

Bukhari :: Book 7 :: Volume 62 :: Hadith 49

 

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas:

The Prophet got married while he was in the state of Ihram

Ø      Though there are lot of Authentic Hadhees indicating that Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) prayed Luha (Late Morning) prayers, Aisha (May Allah be pleased with them) refuted Luha prayer.

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 21 :: Hadith 228

 

Narrated 'Aisha:

Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him)used to give up a good deed, although he loved to do it, for fear that people might act on it and it might be made compulsory for them. The Prophet never prayed the Duha prayer, but I offer it.

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 21 :: Hadith 273

 

Narrated 'Aisha:

I never saw the Prophet offering the Duha prayer but I always offer it. (Refer Bukhari 1128,1177 )

Ø      Ibn Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) also refuted this.(Refer Bukhari 1175)

Bukhari :: Book 2 :: Volume 21 :: Hadith 271

 

Narrated Muwarriq:

I asked Ibn 'Umar "Do you offer the Duha prayer?" He replied in the negative. I further asked, "Did 'Umar use to pray it?" He (Ibn 'Umar) replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did Abu Bakr use to pray it?" He replied in the negative. I again asked, "Did the Prophet use to pray it?" Ibn 'Umar replied, "I don't think he did."

Ø      There is no second thought for any Muslim on the fact that there are 114 Chapters in Quran, But Ibn Masood (May Allah be pleased with them) refuted that 113th and 114th chapters are not there in Quran.(Refer Ahmed 20244, 20246).

Ø      Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) warned us severely not to become reverts by cutting the necks of each other.

 

Bukhari :: Book 9 :: Volume 88 :: Hadith 198

 

Narrated Ibn 'Umar:

I heard the Prophet saying, "Do not revert to disbelief after me by striking (cutting) the necks of one another."

But Companions of Prophet have taken up arms against one another in ‘Utman (May Allah be pleased with them)’s murder, Camel War, Shiffeen War

Likewise there are abundant proofs in Hadhees books. What do these facts depict?

Companions are also Human Beings. There will be possibilities of inaccuracy in them as well. Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) also have said that some of his Companions will alter the Dheen.

 

Bukhari :: Book 4:: Volume 55 :: Hadith 568

 

Narrated Ibn Abbas:

The Prophet said, "You will be gathered (on the Day of Judgment), bare-footed, naked and not circumcised." He then recited:--'As We began the first creation, We, shall repeat it: A Promise We have undertaken: Truly we shall do it.' (21.104) He added, "The first to be dressed on the Day of Resurrection will be Abraham, and some of my companions will be taken towards the left side (i.e. to the (Hell) Fire), and I will say: 'My companions! My companions!' It will be said: 'They renegade from Islam after you left them.' Then I will say as the Pious slave of Allah (i.e. Jesus) said. 'And I was a witness Over them while I dwelt amongst them. When You took me up You were the Watcher over them, And You are a witness to all things. If You punish them. They are Your slaves And if You forgive them, Verily you, only You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise." (5.120-121)

Bukhari :: Book 8 :: Volume 76 :: Hadith 584

 

Narrated Anas:

The Prophet said, "Some of my companions will come to me at my Lake Fount, and after I recognize them, they will then be taken away from me, whereupon I will say, 'My companions!' Then it will be said, 'You do not know what they innovated (new things) in the religion after you."

These are sufficient proofs to Follow only Quran and Hadhees and not Companions.

Finally, would like to conclude with only one caution of Allah’s Apostle:

In Hajjathul–vida (Departing Hajj), Allah’s Apostle (Peace Be Upon Him) said “People! I leave behind two things. You will not go astray until you hold them firmly.

1.      Qitabullah – Book of Allah.

2.      Wa Sunnah- Sunnah of His Apostle” Narrated by: Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with them) Book: Hakim 318.

 

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Published on: May 19, 2010, 7:46 PM Views: 1177

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